Babad Nusa Penida (Buda, 2007)

The article below is a preliminary translation from Indonesian into English by Godi Dijkman of a book called 'Babad Nusa Penida', written bij Jero Mangku Made Buda & a 'Spiritual Group' (Kelompok Spiritual) consisting of Jero Mangku Nyoman Napan, Jero Balian Wayan Tarin, Jero Balian Ketut Menan & Wayan Wirta, published in 2007. All images and titles by the author Buda, 2007.

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Images above: 'I Renggan's Keris Pusaka, saka 75/AD 135 (p.50)'; book cover & 'Prasasti Babad Nusa Penida' (p.28)

It deals with the mythological history of Nusa Penida, the basis of which is the genealogical history 'Babad Nusa Penida'. Apart from this Babad, the author Buda stated in a personal interview (2007) that he was given inspiration by means of 'pawisik', possibly translated as 'visions' or 'divine inspiration'. There are many doubts and language questions are still to be resolved. To understand the Balinese lunar year 'Saka': 0 Saka equals AD 78.

I Bhatara Guru

In the year Saka 43, The Almighty God (Bhatara Guru) came down to earth and brought followers like Eka Purusa, Ardenaweswari, Panca Korseka, Sad Ganapati, Sapta Rsi, Nawa Dewata to a place that is now known as Mesaap [= Saab?], all of them had the bodies of gods (meraga dewata).

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Images above: Pura Empu Aji, Stana Ida Empu Agni Jaya (p.31); Pura Sakenan Desa Jungut Batu, Stana I Rundan dan Hyang Naon (p.31)

II Bhatara Siwa dan Dewi Uma

And in the year Saka 50, The Lord Siwa also came down to earth together with his 'Sakti' named Dewi Uma and her followers named Tri Purusa, Catur Lokha Pala and Asta Gangga.

The Lord Siwa together with his followers went into trance (tedun) on a mountain called Gunung Mundhi and it is on this mountain that the Lord Siwa and his Sakti Dewi Uma turned into human beings from their previous godlike appearance (meraga dewata). The Lord Siwa turned into a man who had the earthly form of a priest with the title 'Dukuh Jumpungan'. The name of Nusa Penida is derived from the transformation into this person. The actual name of Nusa Penida is Manusa Pandita, where 'manusa' is a person named Jumpungan, and 'Dukuh' is a priest. So, the name Nusa Penida originates form Manusa Pandita, and The Lord Siwa's sakti turned into a person and became a woman named Ni Puri, Dukuh Jumpungan's wife.

III. The Lord Siwa and Dewi Parwati

Apart from the top of Gunung Mundhi, the Lord Siwa also came to earth in the year Saka 55 in a place nowadays called Tunjuk Pusuh. But ten years before this, in the year Saka 45, Dewi Kwan Im came to earth and made her palace (berstana) in a cave. Dewi Parwati came down to earth in the year Saka 60 and afterwards many more followed like Bathara Brahma, Mahadewa, Ganapati, Gangga, Tri Purusa and Basukih. Now this cave is called Goa Giriputri that became a 'Pusering Jagat' and Dewi Parwati who bore the title of Bhatari Hyang Giri Putri was made protector of the Holy Water in Goa Giri Putri. Apart from Goa Giri Putri and Pura Tunjuk Pusuh, she also established her Palace (berstana) in Pura Batu Medau.

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Images above: Pura Ancak Sari, Stana Ida Ni Rat Maya (p.32); Pura Ancak Sari, Stana Ida Sri Bagawan (p.32)

IV. Dukuh Jumpungan and Ni Puri

When the Lord Siwa and his Sakti Dewi Uma came down to earth from Siwa Lokha, apart from the followers mentioned above, there were also 150 followers in the shape of human beings. First The Lord Siwa and his Sakti Dewi Uma came down to earth with their followers, accompanied only then by the first humans on Nusa Penida, and Dukuh Jumpungan and his 150 pupils started to build shelters/living quarters that were called Padukuhan in an even (rata) territory in the vicinity of Gunung Mundhi that nowadays is called 'Rata Village'. On the top of Gunung Mundhi was built a pesraman surrounded by plants which originated from eight (asta) water sources wich was called Asta Gangga, with their origins in Siwa Lokha, which also came down to earth together with the Lord Siwa.

Since Nusa Penida is surrounded by a vast ocean, Duku Jumpungan thought of making a prau. In the year 60 Saka, Dukuh Jumpungan meditated (bersemedhi) in the pesraman on the top of Gunung Mundhi and from his 'adnyana' strength emerged a prau that was very beautiful and big indeed. After the proa was finished and ready, it was transported down from the mountain top to the north in the direction of the sea, to the beach of Bodong to be precise, a place now known as Tukat Bodong (Bodong River). Dukuh Jumpungan together with his wife and pupils enjoyed the beauty of the ocean sailing in this proa.

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Images above: Pura Catur Pata Lembongan, Stana Ida I Bangsul (p.33); Pura Sakenan Lembongan, Stana Ida Ni Darmain dan Ni Dyah Ranggeni (p.33); Pura Penida, Stana Ida Ni Luh Nanda / Mas Manik Maketel (p.34)

Then, in the year 90 Saka, Ni Puri gave birth to a boy whom they called I Merja. I Merja proved not so fond of sailing, but instead preferred to meditate and gather spiritual strength through yoga (bersemedhi melaukan tapa brata yoga semedhi) at Batu Beya, asking for the safety of the world and all its natural wonders, and at this stage Nusa Penida became prosperous, peaceful, rich in water (gemah ripah loh jinawi), blessed with the leadership qualities of Dukuh Jumpungan. When Jumpungan reached the age of 95 years he meditated (melakukan yoga semedhi) on the mountain top where today the temple of Pura Puncak Gunung Mundhi stands as the Palace dedicated to Ida Dukuh Jumpungan.

And his wife Ni Puri also meditated (melakukan yoga semedhi) at the age of 230 years and reached moksa in the year 280 Saka. Today the temple Pura Batu Melawang is her Palace. It is told that after having practiced yoga and meditation (melakukan yoga semedhi) for a long time, the spiritual 'adnyana' she gained enabled her to create Goa Betel, extending all the way from the west of Nusa Cenik in easterly direction of Nusa Cenik. Since she started digging from the west, the western part of Nusa Cenik is called Batu Melawang. In the east of Nusa Cenik the end of Goa Betel is visible (ningglas) from Nusa Gede, therefore it is called Batu Banglas. Goa Betel is the Palace or Payogan of the Lords Siwa and Uma. It is also the place where all the heirlooms belonging to I Renggan are kept.

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Images above: Pura Batu Paras, Stana Sang Hyang Catur Loka Pala (p.34); Pura Pusering Jagat, Stana Ida Bhatara Guru & Sad Gana Pati (p.35); Pura Dalem Slimpet, Stana Sang Hyang Panca Korsika (p.35)

V. I Merja and Ni Luna

It is told that after I Merja had reached adulthood, he married Ni Luna. She was from Indra Loka and came to earth together with her family in the year 97 Saka. It were two women, and one of them was Ni Luna's own sister Dewi Rohini. Sukun was the place where Ni Luna and her family came down to earth. Apart from Dewi Rohini's family there were 125 followers, all of them demigods (meraga Denawa). Ni Luna and her followers from Heaven (Dewata), however, reincarnated and became / turned into (menjelma) human beings.

Ni Luna's family (sister, = Dewi Rohini?) was taken by Empu Agni Jaya as his wife. She lived at Jungut Batu. It was also told that Empu Agni Jaya had two adopted sons called Hyang Naon and I Rundan who now have their palace at the temple Pura Sakenan Jungut Batu, whilst Dewi Rohini has found her dwelling place in Sukun, where she also married and founded her rajahdom. At the age of 160, I Merja meditated (melakukan yoga semedhi) in Batu Beya and reached the state of moksa in the year 250 Saka. I Merja has his palace there but there is as yet no temple in his honour.

I Merja's wife, Ni Luna, meditated and practiced yoga (melakukan yoga semedhi) in the area of Batu Banglas at the age of 153 years and she reached moksa in the year 250 Saka. At this moment there is a temple dedicated to her called Pura Batu Banglas. And from the marriage between I Merja and Ni Luna was born a son called I Renggan, who saw his first light in the year 150 Saka. I Renggan married I Merahim (no typing mistake here) who was born in the year 160 Saka.

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Images above: Bangunan sanggaran di Pura Puncak Mundhi (p.45); Bangunan sanggaran di Pura Meranting (p.46)

VI. I Renggan and Ni Merahim

And it was recounted that I Renggan very much enjoyed doing meditation and practiced yoga (melakukan tapa brata yoga semedhi). He meditated (bertapa) in the pasraman on top of Gunung Mundhi. And since he was so diligent and true of heart (kesungguhan hati yang mendalam), Dukuh Jumpungan - who had already reached the state of moksa and was in Siwa Lokha - agreed to come down from the heavens and bestow his gift on his grandson in the form of spiritual strength 'kesaktian'. All the spiritual power Dukuh Jumpungan possessed was inherited by his grandson I Renggan.

Apart from meditation (bertapa), I Renggan also enjoyed sailing through the vast ocean. In the year Saka 175 he made weapons such as a kris, a club (tombak), and other weapons. Only with his special, spiritual 'Adnyana' powers could he create these weapons.

It was recounted that I Renggan became captain (nahkoda) on the ship which belonged to Dukuh Jumpungan. I Renggan had received special spiritual strength from Dukuh Jumpuangan and was therefore untouchable (sakti tak tertandingi). Because he felt invincible he wanted to show off to the world his own powers and those belonging to his granddad's proa. His grandfather's boat was so holy (sakti) that all things it touched suddenly disappeared without a trace. He wanted to prove his special powers, and those belonging to the vessel, by colliding with Nusa Penida. But before ramming into Nusa Penida he went into meditation (melakukan yoga samadi) to ask his grandfather for his blessings, at which Dukuh Jumpungan came back to earth and bestowed his blessings upon his grandson I Renggan. At the place where Dukuh Jumpungan came down to earth, now there is a temple called Pura Penida. After I Renggan had received his grandfather's blessings, he and his crew (anak buah) started (the action of) ramming Nusa Penida. In the year 200 Saka I Renggan managed to ram the island of Nusa Penida breaking it into two parts. In between these two parts a river (loloan) was formed called the Penida River.

The part of Nusa Penida lying to the south was called Nusa Gede and the smaller one was called Nusa Cenik. I Renggan and his 1500 crew members (anak buah) saw the result of his action and they felt very proud because of it. Renggan and his crew celebrated the achievement with a grand celebration in the boat while they were sailing across the ocean. I Renggan went to the south and sailed to the Indian Ocean, and to the west to Nusa Dua where he went ashore. After that he sailed to the east and wanted to ram the island of Lombok, at Bako-Bako to be precise, but he failed in these attempts. Then, I Renggan and his crew sailed to the north and reached Padang Bali and there he and his crew had the plan of ramming the island of Bali starting at Padang Bai all the way through Gunung Agung breaking it in halves. Apart from this, he also had a plan of stirring a commotion amongst the Balinese people starting at Padang Bai. He wanted to spread cholera (grubuk) and fear and anxiety all around the place. So I Renggan went into meditation (bersemedhi) in order to liberate his special spiritual sakti strength. He wanted to use this power to assemble/set loose (mengerahkan) insects and flying fleas (kutu terbang) to attack all the plants on Bali. After he had realised this plan, the Balinese population panicked and became frightened.

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Images above: Pura Pusering Dalem Dukut, Stana Ida Dalem Dukut (p.36); Pura Meranting, Stana Sang Hyang Ardanareswari (p.36); Pura Puncak Mundi, Stana Ida Dukuh Jumpungan & Bhatara Siwa (p.37)

At witnessing this scene, the Raja of Bali at Gunung Agung with the title Hyang Toh Langkir, the incarnation of Wisnu who came down to earth in the year 40 Saka on Gunung Agung, revenged the attack by the insects using his own magical 'adnyana' sakti power. He created fire with which he destroyed the insects and the fleas that I Renggan set loose. Everything burnt down and became scorched because of the massive amounts of burned insects that gathered to form a hill that is called Bukit Pawon. Even if all the insects were destroyed by fire, I Renggan did not want to give up. He once more went into meditation (bersemedhi) to hatch an even bigger plan. He wanted to cause an earthquake and with the special sakti strength of his vessel he wanted to break Gunung Agung into two parts starting at Padang Bai. When Hyang Toh Langkir heard of this plan he became very angry indeed. He cursed I Renggan and his boat in order for them to drift off and drown.

Thus, Hyang Toh Langkir went into meditation (bersemedhi) with his adnyana power and called for strong winds (angin ribut) so that I Renggan's vessel would no longer be able to deal with the high waves in the middle of the sea. (It happened like this) and finally they drifted off and were washed ashore onto the beach (byas) of Nusa Cenik. The front of the prau constitutes the ship's bridge Nusa Cenik while the rear end hangs down and the sail of the ship was dragged away by the wind to the west, ngelembong and it fell down in the middle of Nusa Cenik. From the remains of the sail the sea was created in between the two separated parts of Nusa Cenik. The southern half was called Nusa Ceningan, and the northern half was called Nusa Lembongan. It was also told that a smaller sloop (koleg) from I Renggan's prau was blown away by a high wave (untalang) and thrown (on the beach near) Teluk Gumblong which now has become Batu Koleg. [= Mentigi?]

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Images above:Pura Tunjuk Pusuh, Stana Ida Bhatara Siwa (p.37); Pura Goa Giri Putri, Stana Ida Bhatara Hyang Putri / Dewi Parwati (p.38); Pura Manik Mas, Stana Ida I Gotra & Ni Lumi (p.38)

So once the boat washed ashore in Nusa Cenik, I Renggan stayed there and went into meditation (bertapa) on the island, in Bakung. After I Renggan practiced meditation and yoga (melakukan tapa brata yoga semedhi) at the age of 150 years, he reached the state of moksa in the year 300 Saka. Today there is a temple called Pura Bakung as His Palace with the title Pangerurah. I Renggan's wife Ni Merahim practiced yoga and meditation in the vicinity of Bodong on the main island Nusa Gede after she reached the age of 90 years and in the year 250 Saka she achieved moksa. In the place where she meditated, now there is a temple called Pura Dalem Bungkut as her palace.

All the heirlooms from the boat are kept in Goa Betel in Nusa Cenik. And to safeguard its holiness and supernatural qualities (kekeramatan) of Nusa Cenik or Nusa Ceningan in accordance with Bisama Dukuh Jumpungan, the island of Nusa Cenik is guarded by Prati Sentana Ida Dukuh Jumpungan, west of Ni Puri, east of Ni Luna, north of I Renggan, south of I Undur, who also guards the Asta Gangga holy water in Bongkol Pohon Bebuwu (The Foot of the Bebuwu Tree). This holy water contains the magic power of an ancient heirloom called Tri Sakti and is guarded on the other side of the ocean on the southern side it is guarded by Ni Luh Nanda. On the other side of the ocean to the north it is guarded by Ni Darmain, Ni Diah Ranggeni, in order for Nusa Cenik's holiness and supernatural qualities not to be desecrated. Apart from Nusa Cenik, I Renggan's sacred heirlooms are also kept in Gili Gede, Gili Maya Nusa Lembongan and are guarded by the general (pepatih) Gede Mecaling and Sang Ayu Mas Rajeg Bumi.

After the boat was washed ashore on Nusa Cenik, all of I Renggan's helpers, there were 1500 of them, swam back to Nusa Gede using wooden chips/shards from the boat. They did not stay with I Renggan on Nusa Cenik. They swam and finally floated ashore at Byas Muntig with the wooden pieces of the boat they were holding on to.

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Images above: Pura Dalem Ped, Stana Ratu Gede Mecaling / Papak Poleng (p.39); Pura Dalem Bungkut, Stana Ida Ni Mrahim (p.39)

VII. Dalem Sawang

Given this situation, Dalem Sawang, the son of Dewi Rohini who gave birth to him in the year 160 Saka and later became the Raja of Nusa Gede, became very much enraged and cursed all of I Renggan's crew members, 1500 in total, since they did not stay with I Renggan on Nusa Cenik. This is the reason Dalem Sawang through meditation (bersemedhi) worshipped Durga Dewi. As a result, the 1500 helpers turned into wong samar (a hord of invisible beings). They looked very terrifying indeed. The pieces of wood from the boat were also cursed and became objects with supernatural power called 'Kayu Perahu' and the shards grew and became big in Bodong area. Dalem Sawang's curse was as follows:

"He whomever wishes to meet and worship Durga Dewi to Dalem Nusa is obliged to make use of the 'Kayu Perahu' as a 'pralingga sarwa mecaling' as the 'Kayu Perahu' has its origins in pengendrana Bhatara Siwa (Dukuh Jumpungan). May he have (?) / He should indeed have magical powers and be very brave indeed."

After I Renggan's helpers were cursed and turned into wong samar, and therewith changed into Dalem Sawang's hords of supporters he came into possession of an enormous army in the form of the invisible wong samar, an army that grew in numbers, Dalem Sawang forgot himself (lupa diri). He ignored the prosperity of his Kingdom and the tranquillity of his people. Every single day he started riots by assigning his wong samar the task of looking for bribes and tributes (human sacrifices) that were then offered to him. The wong samar who had the form of evil spirits (Bhuta Kala) therefore spread contagious diseases such as influenza (panas dingin) and the vomiting disease resulting in the death of many of the inhabitants of Nusa Penida. After a person had died, he would be offered to Dalem Sawang as a necessary gift (Upeti).

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Images above: Pura Byas Muntig, Stana Sang Ayu Mas Rajag Bumi / Papak Selem (p.40); Pura Batu Banglas, Stana Ida I Luna (p.40); Pura Bakung, Stana Ida I Renggan / Gede Pengrurah (p.41)

With all the offerings, Dalem Sawang and his army of invisible spirits had a great party and day and night they would eat raw human flesh. The people of Nusa Penida became afraid because Dalem Sawang and his troops continuously demanded human victims as sacrifice. Having taken notice of the situation, the Lord Toh Langkir on Gunung Agung was getting worried about the people of Nusa Penida, since they were in constant fear of being sacrificed by the savagery of Dalem Sawang and his troops. The Lord Toh Langkir then took grass (dukut: grass, weeds) that was called Padang Kasna (Kasna* = glasses) and he started to meditate and practice yoga (bersemedhi melakukan yoga). From the special power of wisdom (adnyana) and a series of magic formulae (Japa Mantra) that he pronounced the Padang Kasna changed into a handsome boy with the character of a worrier (ksatria) whom was given the name Dalem Dukut. After he grew up to be a man, he was ordered to go to Nusa Penida to liberate its people of their misery. That meant that he had to fight the sovereign there, Dalem Sawang. So Dalem Dukut set out on this noble mission armed with the Keris Ratna Kencana and left for the island.

Dalem Dukut left Bali and crossed to Nusa Penida on a leaf called Don Tehep, and got ashore at Byas Muntig in the year 260 Saka. With the arrival of the Ksatria from Bali, the people of Nusa Penida had new hope. Dalem Dukut was given a warm welcome. From Byas Muntig Dalem Dukut was brought to pay his respects in Bodong where he was treated with great respect as is the way these people usually express their reverence.

Armed with the Keris Ratna Kencana and accompanied by the prayers of all the people of Nusa Penida, Dalem Dukut continued his journey to Sukun where Dalem Sawang had his royal palace. Graceful Dalem Dukut approached Dalem Sawang as the man who was commissioned by the Lord Toh Langkir to organise a fair duel with his opponent. From this conversation the following rules as to the duel were established: 1. The duel was going to be one to one; 2. The duel was going to take place during the daytime; 3. The duel was going to be witnessed by the people of Nusa Penida; 4. The gong was going to announce the beginning and the end of the duel.

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Images above: Bangunan sanggaran di Pura Pesering Dalem Dukut (p.47); Bangunan sanggaran di Pura Pusering Jagat (p.48) 

After this agreement was reached, the duel started the next morning in the vicinity of Sukun, in the royal square after the sound of the gong. The duel between Dalem Dukut and Dalem Sawang was dreadful indeed. Dalem Dukut's Keris Ratna Kencana wounded Various times Dalem Sawang, but he was not fatally hurt and the Keris was not able to penetrate his body, since Dalem Sawang was immune to all weaponry made by the Pande. Each time Dalem Sawang was hit with the Keris Ratna Kencana, he roared with laughter. But Dalem Dukut did not want to lose the duel and kept attacking his adversary. Just before the afternoon sun went down, the duel was ended by the sound of the gong. Dalem Sawang and Dalem Dukut went back to the palace to rest and the audience also went back home to sleep in order to watch the duel again in the morning.

Early morning next day, everybody went down to the duel ground. On this second day the duel was to be fought at Mundhi, so both Dalem Sawang and Dalem Dukut left for Mundhi in their royal carriages. The people of Nusa Penida had much enthusiasm and they went to the battle ground in throngs to witness a battle for life and death. The gong sounded and the duel on the second day began. And the duel was very much the same as the one the previous day, in the sense that Dalem Dukut was not able to hurt Dalem Sawang. In the afternoon the gong was sounded to announce the end of the second day of fighting. Dalem Sawang and Dalem Dukut both went back to the palace.

It is told that the Lord Toh Langkir had witnessed these proceedings, and he saw that Dalem Dukut could not win against Dalem Sawang. So he decided to send for Dalem Dukut's wife from Bali. She was commissioned to come to Nusa Penida with a Keris Pencok Sahang, made form the beak of a Bird of Paradise, a gift from the Lord Toh Langkir. After her arrival on Nusa Penida, she immediately went to the palace and handed over the Keris Pencok Sahang to Dalem Dukut. From the conversation between Dalem Dukut and his wife it became evident that the next day there was going to be no duel. Dalem Dukut went to visit Dalem Sawang to express his desire. Dalem Sawang agreed and no duel was to be staged the next day. Dalem Dukut and his wife then climed up to Puncak Mundhi to meditate and to ask for Dukuh Jumpungan's blessing. After having been in meditation for one day and one night, they were given Dukuh Jumpungan's blessing. Dukuh Jumpungan was already in the spheres of Siwa Lokha. When Dalem Dukut went down to meet Dalem Sawang, it was agreed that the next part of the duel was to take place on a hill in the north of the Kingdom.

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Images above: Pura Bebuwu, Stana Ida I Undur (p.41); Pura Batu Melawang, Stana Ida Ni Puri / Ratu Penangkalan (p.42)

And the next morning they all left for the agreed location of the battlefield. All the inhabitants of Nusa Penida attended this historical event. Before dawn the duel started after the gong had sounded. When Dalem Sawang saw how Dalem Dukut unsheathed the Keris Pencok Sahang he was carrying, Dalem Sawang was agape with surprise and trembled with fear. With eyes wide open he gazed at the Kerris Pencak Sahang held by Dalem Dukut. And his knees knocked and he couldn't properly stand up since he knew that the Keris was made from the beak of a Bird of Paradise and it was the weapon that was to put an end to his life. So immediately Dalem Sawang asked forgiveness and put down his weapon as a sign of his defeat.

After Dalem Sawang had surrendered, the inhabitants of Nusa Penida came in tumultuous crowds, and with much noise they cheered with joy, celebrating the victory whilst sounding the gong and making lots of other sounds, in a place that is now known as Batu Mengong. At the moment Dalem Dukut was celebrating his victory together with the people of Nusa Penida, Dalem Sawang had the urge to once more bring misery to the people of Nusa Penida. With great speed Dalem Sawang ran off to Puncak Mundhi. There he meditated whilst stamping his feet three times and cursing (memastu) the well on Puncak Mundhi. The water escaped from the well and it dried out. Not only did he curse the well, but also: 1. Jineng (rice granary) was turned into Batu (stone) Jineng in the northwest of Nusa Penida; 2. Lumbung (B. rice granary) became Batu Lumbung in the southwest of Nusa Penida; 3. Kasidian (result, achievement) Kemandian (Bath?) became Batu Kita in the south of Nusa Penida; 4. Gentong Bowl became Batu Atuh in the east of the island.

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Images above: Map of Nusa Penida (p.56); Genealogy Dukuh Jumpungan (p.51)

When Dalem Sawang cursed all the Upon-Upon Gumi Nusa Penida, the sky became clouded, there was lightning, striking with great force, a strong wind raged and the earth shook. The people of Nusa Penida became very frightened indeed at this spectacle, many panicked and died because of this. So when Dalem Dukut saw this he became very angry and he expelled Dalem Sawang, his wife, his mother Dewi Rohini and his two daughters. From that moment Dalem Sawang and his family started leaving the island in the direction of Padang Bai on the island of Bali, to the temple Pura Penataran Agung.

It is also recounted that when Dalem Sawang cursed the well at pesraman on the mountain Gunung Mundhi, he stamped with his feet three times, water spurted out onto a branch of a tree that was there at puncak Gunung Mundhi, whilst the other spurts of water fell at the foot of a tree named Bebuwu on the island of Nusa Cenik, and this water was the Asta Gangga (Eighth Gangus).

After Dalem Sawang had put a curse on the Jineng, Lumbung, Kasidian Kemandian wells and the Gentong Bowl, he also cursed all the Upon-Upon Bumi Nusa including the sacred (pusaka) property that belonged to the kingdom, hidden at Byas Muntig, according to Bisama Dukuh Jumpungan's wishes. This was the reason why Byas Muntig was guarded by Sang Ayu Mas Rajeg Bumi, wife to Gede Mecaling with his troup of invisible spirits (Bala Samarnya). After everything in Nusa Penida was cursed by Dalem Sawang, many of the island's inhabitants died, the island was in chaos and bone-dry. Dalem Dukut, after having defeated Dalem Sawang, was crowned King of Nusa Penida. And Dalem Sawang grew very sad and worried. Dalem Dukut then went into meditation and practiced yoga (melakukan tapa brata yoga semedhi) in the Kingdom of Nusa to avoid the disasters that were caused by the Dalem Sawang's troupe of invisible spirits (bala samarnya). At that point the Lord Siwa was so gracious to accept Dalem Dukut's request, and he immediately sent Dukuh Jumpungan to earth to give advice to Dalem Dukut as to what should be done.

This was Dukuh Jumpungan's advise: 1. that the events as they had unfolded were ordained by fate or divine decree which could no longer be altered; 2. Dalem Dukut is ordered to go into meditation and practice yoga (melakukan yoga semedhi) to beseech the gods for the safety and prosperity of Nusa Penida; 3. The people of Nusa Penida, once they were free from the curse put on them by Dalem Sawang, had the duty to worship: a. Maguru Piduka; b. The ritual related to saving from a curse (Menyupat pastu); c. To receive and guide all that was cursed and put it in the palace of Gunung Mundhi; 4. To carry out rites of worship at the time of Sasih Kenem so as no longer to be disturbed by the troupe of invisible spirits and the bebuta that roam around in Nusa Penida in the follow ways: a. Wear the Tri Datu thread as a symbol of Siwa; b. Menorek pamor tampak dara di ulu hati; c. Perform a ritual (Nanggluk merana) to ward off illnesses at the beach; 5. The Prati Sentana was ordered to guard the Sacred Property that was cursed, burried at Byas Muntig and Gili Maya, and to watch over Nusa Cenik in order for its holiness and sacred character of the island and the sacred property in Goa Betel; 6. If all of the above advice has been followed, the calm, peace and prosperity of Nusa Penida is safeguarded. If, however, the advice is not adhered to or is transgressed, disaster will strike.

And after Dalem Dukut got his instructions from Dukuh Jumpungan in the form of vows, Dalem Dukut's thoughts grew calm again, and obediently, with self-confidence, Dalem Dukut carried out all of Dukuh Jumpungan's instructions. In the year Saka 260 Dalem Dukut reached the state of moksa and now there is a temple called Pura Pusering Dalem Dukut as his palace (stana).

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Images above: Pura Pesamuan Lawang Sari (p.42); Pura Goa Betel, Payogan Bhatara Siwa & Dewi Uma (p.43)

VIII. Gede Mecaling

And it was told that from the marriage of I Renggan and Ni Merahim two children were born, a girl and a boy named I Gede Mecaling. He was born in the year Saka 180 and his sister in the year Saka 185 and was named Ni Tole. Dalem Sawang, the King of Nusa Penida, later was to take her as his wife. I Gede Mecaling had a wife with the title Sang Ayu Mas Rajeg Bumi. I Gede Mecaling also liked very much, from an early age, to practice yoga and go into meditation (melakukan tapa brata yoga semedhi), and in the year Saka 250 he meditated near Ped. He offered his reverence to the Lord Siwa and because of his diligence he asked Siwa for Wara Nugraha after which the Lord Siwa found it suitable to come down to earth from Siwa Lokha to bestow his blessings to I Gede Mecaling in the form of penugrahan Kanda Sanga. Then, after Mecaling received the Kanda Sanga, he changed form and his body became very big, his face turned fearsome with protruding long fangs, and roaring sound that shook the entire world (jagat raya). With these terrible changes, the whole world (jagat raya) became unsteady and shook, tumultuous and in commotion, everybody was frightened and horrified, and all of this was caused by the form and sound of I Gede Mecaling who kept on roaring and howling day and night stirring an uproar in the world.

At seeing this, all the gods also became confused since no human being on the earth could conquer his sakti spiritual strength which he had just received from the Lord Siwa. Amongst the gods there was no-one who could challenge him now, let alone defeat I Gede Mecaling. The secret of his sakti spiritual strength, apart from the gift bestowed upon him by the Lord Siwa, lay in his long fangs.

At the moment all beings became confused be it in the World (Marcapada) or in Heaven (Swargaloka), in uncertain times when all were flustered, The Almighty God (Bhatara Guru) took up the plan of calling upon all he gods and organising an assembly (Paruman). In this assembly it was agreed that the Lord Indra was going to come down to earth to tackle I Gede Mecaling's behaviour, he was causing commotion and tumult to spread in nature (alam raya, universe?). The Lord Indra designed a strategy to vanquish I Gede Mecaling. For many years on end, the Lord Indra strived with all kinds of tricks to defeat I Gede Mecaling, something in which he only succeeded in the year Saka 290 by cutting off both his long fangs. After his fangs had been cut off, he stopped howling and roaring and as a consequence the unrest caused by these fangs subsided and peace in Nusa Penida reigned once more.

After the Lord Indra managed to cut off I Gede Mecaling's fangs, Indra lived in Batu Banglas, and in the year Saka 400 he moved to Ancak Sari in Nusa Lembongan. There he continued war against Ni Ratmaya who at that moment lived there. Before the battle between the Lord Indra and Ni Ratmaya, it was agreed that whomever would loose the fight was going to serve as official (pengabih = pengabdi?), the Guard of the Jaba, its sentry. Once this was established, the duel began and was won by the Lord Indra. As a consequence Ni Ratmaya became the guard and sentry, whilst the Lord Indra took the Jeroan as his temple (melinggih di sana) and assumed the title Sri Begawan.

It was told that after the Lord Indra had managed to cut off Mecaling's fangs, I Gede Mecaling went back to Ped and went into meditation and practiced yoga (melakukan tapa brata yoga semedhi), and his worship was directed at Ida Batara Ludra. Since Gede Mecaling was very dexterous at meditation and yoga, Ida Batara Ludra consented to come down to earth (Marcapada) to bestow his gratefulness (panugrahan) to Gede Mecaling. These blessings (idem, present, gift, from anugraha) were called Panca Taksu, the Five Spiritual Powers: 1. Supernatural Power (Taksu Kesaktian); 2. Shamanic Power (Taksu Balian); 3. Tumult/Commotion Power (Taksu Penggeger); 4. The Power to Withstand Diseases (Taksu Penlolak Grubuk); 5. The Power to Spread the Plague (Taksu mengadakan Kemeranan)

It is told that after Dalem Dukut reached the state of moksa, all the 1500 helpers (wong samar) became the group of invisible spirits (bala samar) to Gede Mecaling who then became king of Nusa Penida. The 1500 spirits and the bebuta on the island became his army, and I Gede Mecaling assumed the title Papak Poleng, and his wife who owned the title Sang Ayu Mas Rajeg Bumi assumed the title of Papak Selem. It was thus Ida Berdua who became the king of Nusa Penida and he reigned over the island together with his invisible spirit helpers (wong samar) and his bebutans. This is why until this day Nusa Penida is a sacred and supernatural place. I Gede Mecaling practiced yoga and meditation (melakukan yoga semedhi) in Ped at the age of 320 years, and reached the state of moksa in the year Saka 400. Today we find a temple there called Pura Dalem Ped. Sang Ayu Mas Rajeg Bumi practiced yoga and meditated when she was 245 years of age and reached the state of moksa in the year Saka 245.

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Images above: Patung Paras di Puyra Pusering Jagat (p.49); Patung Paras di Pura Batu Melawang (p.49)

IX. I Gotra and Ni Lumi

From the marriage of I Gede Mecaling and Sang Ayu Mas Rajeg Bumi four sons were born. The oldest was called I Gotra who was born in the year Saka 200. He was married to Ni Lumi who was born in the year Saka 210. In the year Saka 375 a daughter was born to them. Both I Gotra and his wife practiced yoga and meditation (melakukan yoga semedhi) at Ped and at the age of 75, in the year Saka 275 I Gotra reached moksa. His wife Ni Lumi meditated and practiced yoga in Ped when she was 165 years of age, and reached moksa in the year Saka 375. There, a temple was founded called Pura Manik Mas, or Pura Mas Gading as the palace (stana) of I gotra and Ni Lumi. Then there was I Bangsul, their son, who meditated and practiced yoga in Bingin on Nusa Lembongan when he was 100 years old, and he reached moksa in the year Saka 375. Now there is a temple named Catuspata as I Bangsul's palace. The second child to I Gede Mecaling and his wife Sang Ayu Mas Rajeg Bumi was a girl who was given the name of Ni Darmain.

X. Ni Darmain

Ni Darmain did not marry. She meditated and practiced yoga (melakukan yoga semedhi) on Nusa Lembongan and reached moksa in the year Saka 250. She was born in the year 203, and now there is a temple called Pura Sakenan as the palace to Ni Darmain. The third child of I Gede Mecaling and his wife was called I Undur, born in the year Saka 205, who married a woman with the name Ni Luh Nanda who was born in the year Saka 300. Ni Luh Nanada came from Bali and she was the child to the King of Bali. It is recounted that I Undur went for a voyage to Bali and went around the island of Nusa Penida in order for his father, the King of Nusa Penida, to meet with Ni Luh Nanda.

XI. I Undur, Ni Luh Nanda and Ni Diah Ranggaeni

From the marriage of I Undur and Ni Luh Nanda a daughter was born with the name Ni Ratmaya who was born in the year Saka 275. I Undur at the age of 70 practiced yoga and meditated (melakukan yoga semedhi) in Asta Gangga in Nusa Cenik in the year Saka 275. The waters from Asta Gangga came down at the foot of a tree at the beach there. In this place there is a temple now which is called Pura Bebuwu as his palace. His wife Ni Luh Nanda, who also bore the title Manik Mas Meketel, went into meditation and practiced yoga at the beach of Nusa Penida when she was 100 years of age, and reached moksa in the year Saka 400. A temple called Pura Penida was erected as her palace. Their daughter Ni Ratmaya went into meditation and practiced yoga (melakukan yoga semedhi) on Nusa Lembongan and reached moksa in the year 450. The Temple Ancak Sari was erected as her palace. The fourth child to I Gede Mecaling and his wife Sang Ayu Mas Rajeg Bumi was given the name Ni Diah Ranggaeni who was born in the year Saka 210. She went into meditation (melakukan semedhi) in Nusa Lembongan in the year Saka 260 at the age of 50. Now it is called Pura Sakenan as her palace.

References (Buda)

  • Anonymous - Prasasti Babad Nusa Penida
  • Anonymous - Pidarta Dukuh Jumpungan
  • Anonymous - Kandaning Palua Renggan
  • Anonymous - Panugrahan Ratu Mecaling


  • Buda, Jero Mangku Made & Kelompok Spiritual (Jero Mangku Nyoman Napan, Jero Balian Wayan Tarin, Jero Balian Ketut Menan, Wayan Wirta) - Babad Nusa Penida; Foreword, December 2006, First Print 2007, Paramita Surabaya, 38pp.

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