Pejenengan Aryya Kubontubuh 1807 (Arnita/Sidemen 2009)

Below text is the result of historian Ida Bagus Sidemen's critical research on various 'prasasti' (inscriptions) published in 2003 in a book called "Inventarisasi dan Transliterasi Prasasti di Nusa Penida, Dinas Kebudayaan Propinsi Bali, Denpasar, 2003″. This book deals with the following 'prasasti' from Nusa Penida: 1. Sekartaji, 2. Mrajan Pejenengan Aryya Kubontubuh, 3. Mrajan Dalem Miyukut; 4. Mrajan Bayuh Kidul; 5. Merajan Bhujangga Waisnawa & 6. Mrajan Aryya Kubon Tubuh.


arnita-inventarisasi-prasasti-nusapenidaarinta-aryyakubontubuh

Images left: original images of the source book 'Inventarisasi dan Transliterasi Prasasti di Nusa Penida' (Arnita et al, 2003) & Prasasti Mrajan Pejenengan Aryya Kubontubuh

From the original publication (2003): Safeguarding & Conservation of Historical Objects Team, Inventory Programme, Prasasti Continuation & Transcription in Nusa Penida; Chief editor (responsible): Dra. I Gusti Ayu Rai Arnita (Head of Bali Culture Department); Chairman: Drs. Ida Bagus Kade Subhiksu, M.M. (Head of Sub Department of 'Sarana' Cultural Heritage); Secratary: I Gusti Bagus Wiryanata, SE. (Head of Founding and Conservation Section Cultural Heritage); Technical team: Team Co-ordinator Drs. I Gusti Ngurah Tara Wiguna, M.Hum.; members: Drs. I Nyoman Sunarya; Drs. I Wayan Tapa; I Wayan Turun; I Dewa Ketut Wicaksana, SSIP, M.Hum.; I Gede Anom Ranuara, S.Pd.; Drs. I Gusti Putu Rai; Ida Bagus Eka Dharma Laksana, SSn., Made Mahesa Yuma Putra, SS.; Secretarial staff: Drs. I Nyoman Rawat, M.Si.; (omiss.) Ni Gusti Ayu Nyoman Sudiasih, B.A.

Balinese Historian Ida Bagus Sidemen is rather critical of these 'prasasti'. Below follows a summarised translation of his comments and analysis by Godi Dijkman.

1. General comments on 'prasasti' (ancient inscriptions) found in Nusa Penida

The texts presented here and elsewhere on this website on the various 'Prasasti' are taken from 'Inventory & Transliteration of Ancient Lontar Transcriptions of Nusa penida' (Inventarisasi dan Transliterasi Prasasti di Nusa Penida), 181 pages. It was published in Denpasar by Bali Provincial Department of Culture (Dinas Kebudayaan Propinsi Bali) in 2003. Not all manuscripts in this book are analysed, because internal analysis showed that some manuscripts were virtually identical. Moreover, there are doubts on the contents of the inscriptions and the use of the word 'prasasti'.

2. General external analysis

This book reports on the results of a series of inventory investigations. In general terms, its contents is not exhaustive nor well-researched, apparently due to time and financial constraints and the lack of professionalism on the part of the committee in charge. For example, in chapters I & II, 'prasasti' classifications are merely used based on those used by Goris. No clear definition of 'prasasti', however, nor a working parameter is used to identify findings by distinguishing class I, II, or III. Historiographical forms like 'piagem', 'pangeling-eling' and 'panugrahan' are all given the general name 'prasasti', whereas in reality these are different manuscripts. Additionally, there is one fatal error in chapter II, regarding the meaning of the transliteration, which is referred to as 'alih bahasa'. Transliteration is a rendering of the 'aksara' (into Latinised script), and translation is rendering of a text into a different language. There are hardly any translations in this book; we only find a succinct abstract of each manuscript.

Also, there is hardly any external analysis as to the contents, for example with regards to the difference between palm leave and copper plate or other types of inscriptions. This is certainly true for the palm leaf inscriptions measuring 6 cm wide (Prasasti Mrajan Bayuh Kidul, p.13). It would be truly extraordinary to find a manuscript in the form of a palm leaf inscription measuring 6 cm in width with a thickness of 1 mm. The oldest palm leaf inscription dates back to AD 1634 and measures W 3,8 cm, with the thickness of paper (HVS 80 gram). The type of paper with a thickness of 1 mm would equal cardboard. If we accept this parameter, it would mean that these palm leaf inscriptions were as thick as cardboard, and this would be truly spectacular. These faulty external analyses give rise to many doubts, so that they should be revised. It looks like the 'Inventory body' has failed to do so, especially since this body falls under government responsibility.

Prasasti Mrajan Pejenengan Aryya Kubontubuh: External analysis

The physical conditions of this manuscript follow those of 'tim penulis buku inventarisasi' as mentioned before. This manuscript is kept at Pangempon Mrajan Pajenengan Aryya Kubon Tubuh, at Kutampi village, Nusa Penida. It was transliterated by 'Tim Pemeliharaan Dan Pelestarian Warisan Budaya Bali, Dinas Kebudayaan Provinsi Bali' on 1 November 2003. The manuscript consists of thin copper plates, L 39 cm, W 5 cm, D 1 mm, written with four lines on front and rear, using Balinese script and language. The way these inscriptions were made is not clear on this copper plates: were they done by 'dicor' or special 'pengrupak'? Close examination and identification of these inscriptions would reveal the source of these writings.

Prasasti Mrajan Pejenengan Aryya Kubontubuh: Transliteration

In the process of transliteration from Balinese characters into Balinese and Latinised script, according to historical discipline, various errors are found regarding the fist a (obverse) and b (reverse). In the transliteration of the aksara, historical principles are applied. Hence, a change occurs by which page a becomes page b, and vice versa. 

Balinese Indonesian English
[1a] pangandikan cokorda dewa agung, ida lugraha i made kutampi wah sarencange i made kutampi lugrahin i pan suba, kakna pjah panjing muwang pangayah nangken nemu pasah, ne kalugrahin i kandel, i tangkas, pan ngelet, pan repog, i keh, pan paksi, pan bingkut, pan gami, pan pandak, pan rebut, pan reneh, i mojol, pan gampil, i gintit, pan kapreg, i pogpog, pan mandi, i madut, pan pahum, pan perok, pan lagandi, pan combol, pan sinandi, pan saip, pan enung, pan genpyak, i kitir, pan kuntul, i simnga, pan Atas perintah Cokorda Dewa Agung, beliau mengizinkan I Made Kutam-pi dan semua anak buahnya I Made Kutampi, mengizinkan Pan Suba, dikenakan pejah panjing (kerja wajib kerjak paksa gadai seumur hidup) dan pelayan, pada setiap hari pasah (hari pasaran kota Klungkung), yang diberi izin I Kandel, I Tangkas, Pan Ngelet, Pan Repog, I Keh, Pan Paksi, Pan Bingkut, Pan Gami, Pan Pandak, Pan Rebut, Pan Reneh, I Mojol, Pan Gampil, I Gintit, Pan Kapreg, I Pogpog, Pan Mandi, I Madut, Pan Paum, Pan Perok, Pan Lagandi, Pan Combol, Pan Sinandi, Pan Saip, Pan Enung, Pan Genpyak, I itir, Pan Kuntul, I Simnga, Pan Cokorda Dewa Agung orders and allows I Made Kutampi and all of his inferiors I Made Kutampi, allowing Pan Suba to be sentenced 'pejah panjing (life-long forced labour 'gadai') and [their?] servants, on each 'hari pasah' (market day in Klungkung), who have been given consent by I Kandel, I Tangkas, Pan Ngelet, Pan Repog, I Keh, Pan Paksi, Pan Bingkut, Pan Gami, Pan Pandak, Pan Rebut, Pan Reneh, I Mojol, Pan Gampil, I Gintit, Pan Kapreg, I Pogpog, Pan Mandi, I Madut, Pan Paum, Pan Perok, Pan Lagandi, Pan Combol, Pan Sinandi, Pan Saip, Pan Enung, Pan Genpyak, I itir, Pan Kuntul, I Simnga, and Pan Gunem, 
[1b] gunem, pan darsi, pan pageh, pan kincang, pan ujung, pan taked, i nunggal, pan sewan, pan kandi, pan mopog, i gongsor, pan neka, pan lasih, i manggeh, pan gubah, pan nangkrik, pan tulut, i nana, i nyana, ne palugrahan pangandika dalem tumus tkaning sapajahnya, duk (nurat) panugraha iki, ring dina, bu, ka, ugu, titi tanggal ping, 8, sasih sadha, rah, 9, tenggek, 2, anurat panyarikan dalem, lulub. Gunem, Pan Darsi, Pan Pageh, Pan Kincang, Pan Ujung, Pan Taked, I Nunggal, Pan Sewa, Pan Kandi, Pan Mopog, I Gongsor, Pan Neka, Pan Lasih, I Manggeh, Pan Gubah, Pan Nangkrik, Pan Tulut, I Nana, I Nyana, ini izin titah Dalem, terus berlaku sampai mati, waktu menyurat surat izin ini, pada hari bhuda (Rabu) Kaliwon, Ugu, Tanggal 8 (hari ke-8 setelah bulan mati), sasih 12 (Desember), satuan 9, puluhan 2, (tahun Saka '29), yang menulis Sekretaris Dalem, (tertanda) Lulub. Pan Darsi, Pan Pageh, Pan Kincang, Pan Ujung, Pan Taked, I Nunggal, Pan Sewa, Pan Kandi, Pan Mopog, I Gongsor, Pan Neka, Pan Lasih, I Manggeh, Pan Gubah, Pan Nangkrik, Pan Tulut, I Nana, I Nyana, by the king; this sentence is valid until they die; this letter was written on Bhuda (Rabu) Kaliwon Ugu, 8 (eighth day after new moon), 2 December (Saka 1929); written by Secretary of the King, (signed) Lulub.

Prasasti Mrajan Pejenengan Aryya Kubontubuh: Internal analysis

The names mentioned in this manuscript surely indicate names from the Nusa Penida dialect in the XIX century. Pan indicates that the mentioned person is married and has a family, whereas those without 'pan' indicate those without a family. Based on the contents of this manuscript, it concerns a 'surat penugarahan', equal to a 'pangeling', according to established laws. This 'Panugrahan' was issued by the king Cokorda Dewa Agung, purportedly a Klungkung King. Hence, it would concern the XVIII-XIX century.

In these two centuries, the king of Klungkung and other Bali kings were involved in the implementation phase of the 'Paswara Astanegara', regarding law/rights and the responsibility of the officials in their respective kingdoms in order to avoid any occurrence leading to conflict of law within the kingdom, or with neighbouring kingdoms. Hence, to avoid this situation the kings issued 'panugrahan engeling-eling, paswara' or letters of 'papegatan' (High Court Decisions). The contents of these 'panugarahan' bestowed the lawful right and responsibility to the inferiors 'anak buah' of I Made Kutampi (perbekel, head of the village of Kutampi) Pan Subana, to impose 'pejah panjing' (life-long forced labour) and normal forced labour sentences to all those who are mentioned in the 'surat panugrahan', issued each three days, at each market day at Klungkung. This 'Panugarahan' was written on behalf of the king, by the royal secretary I Lulub, on Wednesday, December Saka 1829. The first two digits are not mentioned by the secretary.

The Saka year does not give the last two digits, a phenomenon quite common in correspondence amongst Balinese kings, because for the 'penyarikan' and the readers of this letter surely were aware of this at this moment in time. To today's readers, these two digits are a guess, i.e. somewhere between 1700 or 1800. If when we use 1800, then the Saka year 1829 comes down to AD 1907 M. The king ruling Klungkung was Ida I Dewa Agung Jambe.

However, if 1700 is used, this would mean Saka 1729 (AD 1807). At this time Ida I Dewa Agung Sakti was king of Klungkung, who ruled together with his son at the palace at Kusamba. One of the reasons he ruled together with his son, apart form the 'kaderisasi', was because Ida I Dewa Agung Sakti was rarely active in government affairs, as he was more involved in magic, literature, and in the realm of spirituality and religion. As the contents of this 'panugrahan' deals with the rights and responsibilities 'pejah panjing', it is considered that the year should indicate Saka 1729 (AD 1807). This assumption is fortified by the fact that various manuscripts from Nusa Penida [of this era?] mention the name of king Ida I Dewa Agung Sakti.

Source

  • Arnita, Dra. I Gusti Ayu Rai Arnita (et al.) - Inventarisasi dan Transliterasi Prasasti di Nusa Penida, Dinas Kebudayaan Propinsi Bali, October 2003, 181p.
  • Sidemen, Ida Bagus - Nusa Penida dalam Prasasti, "Analisis eksternal dan internal tentang Inventarisasi dan Transliterasi Prasasti di Nusa Penida, Dinas Kebudayaan Propinsi Bali, Denpasar, 2003", (unpublished) Denpasar - Bali, Indonesia 2009, 34pp.

*original Inonesian text*

Prasasti Mrajan Pejenengan Aryya Kubontubuh: Analisis Eksternal

Pengenalan naskah secara phisik mengikuti catatan phisik yang dikerjakan oleh tim penulis buku inventarisasi tersebut di depan. Naskah disimpan oleh Pangempon Mrajan Pajenengan Aryya Kubon Tubuh, Desa Adat Kutampi, Nusa Penida. Naskah disalin oleh Tim Pemeliharaan Dan Pelestarian Warisan Budaya Bali, Dinas Kebudayaan Provinsi Bali, dan selesai dikerjakan pada 1 November 2003. Naskah berbahan lempengan tembaga tipis, panjang 39 cm, lebar 5 cm, tebal 1 mm, ditulisi 4 baris pada halaman depan dan belakang, menggunakan aksara Bali berbahasa Bali. Tidak dijelaskan cara penulisan pada lempengan tembaga itu, apakah dicor atau disurat dengan pengrupak khusus. Apabila kondisi ini diteliti dengan baik dan hasil identifikasinya disuratkan dalam kondisi yang sebenarnya, maka phisik naskah ini dapat dikenali lebih tegas, apakah termasuk jenis klasifikasi yang mana sebenarnya naskah ini.

Prasasti Mrajan Pejenengan Aryya Kubontubuh: Transliterasi (alih aksara)

Dalam mengenali naskah ini ketika aksaranya akan disalin dari aksara Bali menjadi berhurup Latin, menurut disiplin sejarah telah terjadi kekeliruan mengenali permukaan a (obverse) dan b (reverse). Dalam alih aksara yang ditampilkan disini, akan dilakukan pengenalan menurut disiplin ilmu sejarah. Dilakukan perubahan, halaman a akan menjadi halaman b, dan sebaliknya halaman b akan menjadi halaman a.

Prasasti Mrajan Pejenengan Aryya Kubontubuh: Analisis Internal

Nama-nama yang disebutkan dalam naskah dengan pasti menunjukkan nama dalam bahsa Nusa Penida dalam abad XIX. Pan menunjukkan bahwa yang bersangkutan sudah berkeluarga, sedangkan yang tidak menggunakan kata 'pan' menunjukkan masih bujangan. Berdasarkan isinya maka naskah ini berbentuk surat penugarahan, sejenis dengan pangeling, yang memilikikekuatan hukum. Panugrahan ini diterbitkan atas perintah raja yang bernama Cokorda Dewagung, yang diduga merupakan raja kerajaan Klungkung. Oleh karena itu kejadiannya diperkirakan terjadi dalam abad XVIII-XIX.

Dalam dua abad ini, raja Klungkung dan raja-raja Bali lainnya sedang berada dalam era implementasi Paswara Astanegara, dalam bidang hak dan kewajiban rakyat dan pejabat dalam kerajaan masing-masing, agar berusaha mencegah setiap kejadian yang dapat menjadi konflik hukum dalam kerajaan, atau dengan kerajaan tetangga. Oleh karena itu untuk mencegah kondisi itu raja mengeluarkan panugrahan, engeling-eling, paswara, atau surat papegatan (putusan pengadilan).
Isi panugarahan itu memberikan hak dan kewajiban kepada anak buah I Made Kutampi (perbekel kepala desa Kutampi) yang bernama Pan Subana, untuk mengambil hak pejah panjing (kerja paksa wajib seumur hidup) dan kerja wajib biasa, terhadap semua orang yang namanya tersurat dalam surat panugrahan, yang dilakukan setiap 3 hari sekali, pada setiap hari pasaran di kota Klungkung. Panugarahan itu ditulis atas nama Dalem, oleh sekretaris kerajaan yang bernama I Lulub, selesai ditulis pada hari Rabu, bulan Desember, tahun Saka '29. Ribuan dan ratusannya tidak disuratkan oleh sekretaris.

Kondisi tidak menyuratkan ribuan dan ratusan dalam tahun Saka ini sangat biasa ditemukan dalam surat menyurat raja Bali, karena bagi penyarikan bahwa si pembaca atau penerima surat pasti sudah tahu ribuan dan ratusannya, karena surat itu pasti sudah di baca dalam tahun Saka yang pasti sedang berlaku pada saat itu. Bagi pembaca masa kini, ribuan dan ratusannya masih harus ditebak, antara 1800 atau 1700. Kalau menggunakan 1800, maka akan menjadi tahun saka 1829 (1907 M). Raja Klungkung pada masa tahun ini bernama Ida I Dewa Agung Jambe.

Kalau menggunakan 1700, maka itu berarti tahun Saka 1729 (1807 M). Pada masa ini yang menjadi raja Klungkung bernama Ida I Dewa Agung Sakti, yang memerintah bersama-sama dengan putranya di keraton Kusamba. Salah satu alasan beliau memerintah bersama putranya, selain kaderisasi juga karena Ida I Dewa Agung Sakti jarang dapat aktif memerintah, karena lebih menekuni bidang magi, sastra, dan bidang religius spiritual. Oleh karena isi panugrahan itu tentang hak dan kewajiban pejah panjing, dugaan lebih cenderung tahun Saka itu menunjuk tahun 1729 (1807 M). Kecendrungan itu sangat beralasan karena ada beberapa naskah Nusa Penida yang menunjuk nama raja Ida I Dewa Agung Sakti

This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. research: Godi Dijkman http://guidomansdijk-talen.nlsocial facebook box white 24