Villages & temples administration (Grader, 1937)

Village & temple administrative systems on Nusa Penida by C.J. Grader (1937)

Below meticulously detailed description of the village and temple administrative systems was published in DJÅWÅ, "Tijdschrift van het Java-Instituut", XVIIth edition, in 1937.

The article counts 21 pages of minute details and makes very interesting reading. Directly below, in a table by author GD, you will find a contents summary by headings. Notes by Grader and additional information by author GD are introduced in the text in square brackets. The original Dutch article was written in pre-war spelling and makes use of intricate sentence constructions typical for this era. To enhance readability, the spelling in the English translation by author GD has been adapted for Indonesian and Balinese to modern standards.

General Classification
  • Lower Administrative system
  • The Klian Dasa
  • Desa and Banjar
  • Desa Klumpu
  • Banjar Kauh and Banjar Kangin
The Temple System
  • Pura Dalem in Klumpu
  • Pura Mrajan in Klumpu
  • Pura Mundi
  • Pura Ped
  • Summary

General Classification

Nusa Penida, which forms one district together with the smaller islands of Ceningan and Lembongan, is subdivided in twelve perbekelships. These perbekelans can again be divided into two groups, of which one part dedicates itself to the veneration of the state temple at Ped, whereas the other perbekelans are veneration/worshipping groups of the Pura Batu Medau. The boundary between these two administrative systems coincides with the Tukad Tiyingan and the Pura Sekar Angkuh. Similarly, the perbekel's jurisdiction is subdivided in a western (dauh bantas) and an eastern (dangin bantas) group, as becomes clear in below table:

A. Dauh Bantas: (Poera Ped)
  • 1. Ped
  • 2. Klumpu
  • 3. Sakti
  • 4. Batu Madeg
  • 5. Batu Kandik
  • 6. Jungut Batu
  • 7. Lembongan
B. Dangin bantas: (Pura Batoe Medau)
  • 8. Kutampi
  • 9. Batu Nunggal
  • 10. Suana
  • 11. Tanglad
  • 12. Sekar Taji

Formerly, the subdivision of the perbekelships was different: Batu Kandik, Batu Madeg and Klumpu used to fall under Ped; at Pangkung, which nowadays falls under Batu Madeg and in Tulad, which now belongs to Batu Kandik, a number of perbekels had established themselves; likewise, Ramuan (currently part of Sekar Tadj) and Buyuk (currently under Kutampi) were once separate perbekelans. Furthermore, the old perbekelan dynasties, dating from the period of the rajahs, from which by preference the functionaries were appointed up to today, are indicated in below table:

A. Dauh Bantas: (Pura Ped)
  • 1. Ped (I Nyoman Papak)
  • 2. Sakti (I Wayan Dangin)
  • 3. Jungut Batu (Pan Tangsi)
  • 4. Lembongan (I Wayan Pasek)
  • 5. Pangkung (I Ketut Sada)
  • 6. Tulad (Nang Jabreg = Pan Gara).
B. Dangin bantas: (Pura Batu Medau)
  • 7. Kutampi (I Made Lateng)
  • 8. Batu Nunggul (Ngakan Gde Dalang)
  • 9. Suana (I Made Mranggi)
  • 10. Tanglad (Sekar)
  • 11. Sekar Taji ( Gde Lawas)
  • 12. Ramuan (I Made Putu)
  • 13. Buyuk (Nang Rambug)

An attempt has been made to join the perbekelan Tanglad with Suana: Tanglad, which from times immemorial has had a separate perbekel, is against this consolidation, as it is considered a degradation. The major sanctuaries of Ped and Batu Medau both carry the designation: "Pura Penataran", which could refer to the fact that these temples were founded by royal authority. Indeed, the word "penataran" implies a more polite linguistic content than the word "dalem", which, in connection with the name of a state temple, not so much serves to indicate the chthonic nature of the sanctuary, but rather has a honorific connotation. It is uncertain whether the division of the perbekelans in a western and an eastern group is the result of a decision made by the administration of the rajahs, or was decided upon in earlier times. According to tradition, Batu Medau has been for a very long time a sanctuary of some importance. Still, the current royal setup dates back to the times of the administration of Dewa Agung Rai. As a "state temple", Pura Batu Medau seems to be of a younger date than the sanctuary of Ped. Once a month the perbekels (or their representatives) gather in the western veneration groups in Pura Ped or the eastern branch at Batu Medau. This gathering is known as 'sangkepan' and during these meetings measures in the interest of temple maintenance, cash management and the celebrations of the pujawalis are taken. By turns the administration of the odalan, which takes place according to the Ukut chronology, is given to one perbekelan at a time.

Lower Administrative system

The perbekel's task is to take care of the works commissioned to him by the (Dutch Colonial) Government. Yet, he also fulfils a role in the organisation of the pura administrative system, i.e. not just to the state temples, but also with regard to the sanctuaries of more local importance. In the performance of his duties the perbekel is assisted by various "klian satus" (chiefs of a hundred lower ranking workers (dienstplichtigen), who, in turn, are placed above the "klian seket" (heading fifty pengayahs). The groups falling under the responsibility of both types of klians do not coincide with the adat jurisdiction, i.e. the "banjars" and, as far as the distinction is made, the "desas". It rarely happens that various banjars are united into one klian's jurisdiction [The jurisdiction of the klian satus and seket, too, are indicate with the term "banjar"]. The perbekelan Klumpu can serve as an example. The perbekel resides over three klian satus ands six klian seket, while at the same time the perbekelan in total counts fourteen villages, subdivided into eighteen banjars.

Perbekelan Klumpu A. Klihan Satus I. Klihan seket a. Klumpu
  • 1. Banjar kawan [Banjar Kauh (kawan) and bandjar kangin, respectively the western and the eastern banjar (the usual way, especially on Nusa Penida, to distinguish the various banjars].
  • 2. Bandjar kangin
b. Metaki II. Klihan Seket
  • a. Angas kaja [Angas kaja and Angas kelod are not a unity; these places are divided by a mountain ridge (selat bukit)].
  • b. Angas kelod
  • c. Semaga
B. Klihan SatusI. Klihan seket.a. Rata
  • 1. Banjar kangin
  • 2. Banjar kaoeh
b. Subia
  • 1. Banjar kangin
  • 2. Banjar kauh
II. Klihan Seket
  • a. Tiagan
  • b. Pengalusan
  • c. Tengaksa
C. Klihan satus I. Klihan Seket a. Baledan 1. Banjar munggah [the one located at great altitude] 2. Bandjar Nyu(w)ung II. Klihan seket.
  • a. Iseh
  • b. Bila
  • c. Waru

The perbekel only organises a sangkepan with his klians whenever service requires; Juruarahs are not present; letters are sent with the help of "heerendienstplichtigen" (slaves; kemit). The income of the (Dutch colonial) government functionaries restrict themselves to wages obtained by "collection" and the yields from their "ambtsvelden" (fields under their respective administrative responsibility), which in part are located in the vicinity of the village of Penida (coconut plantations) and partly in Klungkung on mainland Bali. These "ambtsvelden" in Klungkung are cultivated as "deelbouw". During the harvest season, the perbekels and the klians receive their share of the harvest due to them personally [The total surface of the buktis of the thirteen perbekels measures: 5.44 H.A. sawah and 17.63 H.A. tegal; lower-ranking workers receive: 11.31 H.A. sawah, 12.40 H.A. tegal and 1014 coconut trees. The sawahs are located in the district of Sawan (Klungkung); and the tegalans on Nusa]. The perbekelans and klians are furthermore exempt from performing "heerendienst" (colonial slavery).

The Klian Dasa

An administrative institution that is not part of the (Dutch colonial) governmental responsibilities, which, however, bears some "politionele" influence, is the "seka gulungan". From each perbekelan one person is appointed to become a member of the college. If one disregards the smaller islands of Lembongan and Ceningan, Nusa Penida consists of ten perbekelans, and the seka gulungan consists of ten members (klihan sampi), which is the reason why this institution has been given the name of "klian dasa" (the ten men). The college sets itself the task to adjudge cattle theft and related matters [Refer to an extensive report on the klian dasa by B.J. Haga in Adatrechtbundel XXIII p.400-403, in which the necessity is brought to light of the enforcement of the law administration by the klian dasa. Cf. in this respect the data regarding the tracking down of cases of cattle theft in Jembrana in Adatrechtbundel XV, p.87 and in Adatrechtbundel XXXVII, p.552]. Unfortunately, the seka does not know a primus inter pares and whenever a member deviates (from the rules), a successor will be elected from the remaining members.

Once a month, on Radite Umanis, the seka gulungan gathers at Bangun Urip (Perbekelan Batu Kandik), in the bale bandjar dangin (sangkepan). It is customary the klians satus and seket also attend this sangkepan not only in order to receive firsthand the necessary information and orders, but also to put forward complaints regarding their own area. These klians, however, do not have the right of vote. By turns (giliran), at each sangkepan, one of the klians dasa offers the "cane", consisting of prepared sirih (porosan), of which often at least two hundred are needed.

Regarding the transgressions related to the keeping of cattle, various types of fines have been introduced. In the case of stray cattle causing damage (naban), it makes a difference whether the cow (the term "cattle" exclusively stand for cows) has managed to free itself, or whether it concerns a case of negligence on the part of the owner. In the first case, a minimum fine of 250 "duiten" is imposed. In other cases the fine will be 1200 kepeng (nem bangsit), this used to be as much as 2000 "duiten". In the case of cattle theft, too, a fine is applicable.

A lontar inscription containing the various stipulations (awig-awig), to be taken into consideration by the klian dasa during the trial, is in the possession of the klian dasa Kakin Tegeg from Batu Kandik. Kakin Tegeg has been appointed keeper (bewaarder), as he is the klian of the perbekelan to which Bangun Urip belongs. [See Adatrechtbundel XXIII, p. 401; founder of the seka gulungan was I Nyoman Pedoman, who became the klian moncol of Batu Kandik; he was succeeded by his son Kakin Ngales. At the time the seka gulungan counted five members, the grandson of the founder, N.Kreced, was also a member of this seka. Ever since its foundation, the perbekelan Batu Kandik, in relation to the seka gulungan, has been its centre].

It is the rule that everyone adheres to the verdicts given by the seka gulungan; unruliness in the olden days was subdued by declaring the cattle of the unruly party an outlaw. Even now it is feared that a boycott will be suggested, leading to immediate settlement of the due payment of the fine imposed. If the condemned party objects to the verdict given by the klian dasa, the seka gulungan refers the case to the government judge (Districtsgerecht or Raad van Kerta). The fines, collected on the day of the sangkepan, are equally distributed amongst the suing party, the seka’s cash register and the klian dasa personally. It is customary that the money received by the klian dasa himself is spent instantly. A communal meal consisting of ketipat is paid from this sum. The sangkepan at Bangun Urip is an event, which draws in many interested people; because of the hundreds of visitors the sales women do excellent business.

Desa and Banjar

There is little distinction between the terms "desa" and "banjar" and particularly the description of the term "desa" causes some confusion on Nusa Penida, soliciting a wide range of diverging opinions. In some cases, the opinion is held that Nusa Penida knows only two "desas", i.e. the areas of "dangin bantas" and "dauh bantas". According to this belief, both veneration groups, which together make up Nusa Penida, are called "desa". This system is similar to the organisation of the desa system of the Balinese of Lombok, where the former rajahdoms of Cakranegara, Mataram, Pagutan and Pagesangan, which gave rise to the association communities (vereenigingsgemeenschappen), constitute the actual desas.

Others equal the "perbekelan" to "desa" and do not so much point at the administrative unity, but rather at the fact that in some cases the perbekelan comprises a veneration group and also in other ways forms one single entity as vis-à-vis the associations of the Pura Ped and Batu Medau the perbekelans each form a single unit. This is also the case with regards to the seka gulungan, as from each perbekelan one klian is appointed.

Some perbekel (jurisdiction) areas have a temple, which has the function of the sungsungan for the entire perbekelan, as is the case with Pura Mundi for the official area (ambtskring) of the perbekel of Klumpu, and Pura Tunjuk Pusuh for the perbekelan Tanglad. In other areas the view is held that the living quarters of the perbekel is called "desa", as is the case in the perbekelan Batu Nunggul, where the term "desa" Batu Nunggul is [not] used, but instead the terms "banjars" Sampalan and Mentigi are used.

Within the perbekelan, however, the banjars Batu Nunggul, Sampalan and Mentigi are one single unit, together revering one puseh and one dalem, and both temples are situated in the area of Batu Nunggul [Also, the Pura Pucak Sari is the sungsungan of these three banjars; the sanctuary is located at Mentigi and is also considered to be a puseh]. This is the reason why others ascribe the higher appreciation of Batu Nunggul to the fact that this is the place where the general puras are situated.

The equation of "desa" with "living quarters of the perbekel" and with the place where the temples are located, are mentioned to show what attitudes have to be kept into consideration on Nusa. Otherwise, they bear no particular meaning. Another opinion held is that the "desa" is a village, and the members of the association together form the "banjar". It would seem that the following distinction is more effective: the "banjar" is foremost an association for the benefit of the death cult; de "desa" is the unity, which dedicates itself to the temple administration. Sometimes, the veneration of the dead is similar to the temple associations as the desa does not comprise more than one banjar. In addition, various banjars together constitute one temple association. In this case, the "desa" comprises a number of banjars.

The distinction on Nusa Penida is not clear-cut. One example, however, can serve as an illustration.

The village of Klumpu

Desa Kloempoe comprises two banjars (banjar kauh and banjar kangin). The definition given in Klumpu of the term banjar is as follows: the banjar is an association for the veneration of the dead and for the communal service rendered to the ancestors. Characteristics of the banjar are:

1. The possession of a "bale banjar" * ["Bale banjar", in short indicated as the "banjar", sometimes: "karangan banjar"], consists of a number of warehouses, built together on one single premises, offering the possibility to hold banjar meetings, the slaughtering during the banjar feasts, the production and putting in order of the offerings, and the organising of dance and music performances. Apart from this, there always are altars for the gods present on the banjar premises. Furthermore, this banjar temple (Pura Banjar) bears the name of "Umah Sanghyang" (pars pro toto).

*) A characteristic feature of the banjar is the following short description regarding the genesis of the village of Kutampi. When the forefather of the current perbekel in the olden days was sent to Nusa to take on his responsibilities as the representative (perbekel) of the rajah, he was accompanied by nineteen families, primarily from Kemoning, Tangkas and Kemasan. It was decided that in the vicinity of Jurang Pait a new settlement was to be established. Soon after the first land reclamations were completed, the people united themselves in a pamaksan banjar and a sema (graveyard) was realised and Pura Dalem erected. After this, for the Gunung Agung a place of worship was built, Pura "Gunung Anyar" or Pura "Pamaksan", and it was named as such because there were people from Klungkung, who felt the need for a Pasimpangan for the Batara Di Gunung Agung; in other words, the Pura fell into the hands of the pamaksan "Klungkung". Nowadays, however, it serves as a general place of worship. For the benefit of the fishermen and tradesmen a Pura Mlanting was erected. A village which belonged to the village of Jurang Pait, even though it was situated in the area where the temple of Kutampi can be found, the Pura Pamastulan was given the status of a Pura Puseh because the official area of the perbekel of Kutampi also comprised Jurang Pait as well and, being a Pamastulan, representing the oldest temple in the surroundings. Jurang Pait is the oldest settlement in the region; the village of origin is Gunung Semir; this village, nowadays, only consists of eight families. In the vicinity of Jurang Pait, the more recent settlement of Glagah has made its intentions of inclusion clear; the people were originally from Sebun Dupa (Perbekelan Sakti), a village which does no longer exist. The Pamastulan is the only temple, which is venerated by three villages at the same time; these three banjars together form the Seka Pamastulan. Kutampi and Jurang Pait each have a Klian Pamastulan; Glagah, in this respect, falls under Jurang Pait. The Pujawali at the Pamastulan coincides with Anggara Klion Dukut.]

2. The presence of a banjar association, the "seka banjar". All married people are members to the seka. Widowers (balu) enjoy general exemption, even though at home they enjoy the care of female caretakers (of a mature daughter or of a female family member). The "klian banjar" is head of the seka, assisted by the "Panyarikan" [The Panyarikan is the banjar clerk, he does the administration and verifies that everyone complies with his responsibilities according to the member list]. The banjar sets itself the goal of recording the communal practice of ancestors worship, of the social assistance within the community regarding ceremonies for the deceased and other family-related ceremonies, whilst the banjar also burdens itself with the care of the "grondmagie". The word "desa" serves to indicate the united banjars: with regards to the veneration of the village temples, both banjars are one single unit. These village temples are the Pura Dalem and the Pura Mrajan. Both puras are exclusively the sungsungan of Klumpu, and no other villages take part in the worship. Two of Klumpu's banjars act together in the worshipping of the Pura Mundi (sungsungan of the entire perbekelan of Klumpu).

Still, the "desa" does not have a chief. For each set objective, a separate leader is appointed. For the veneration of the Pura Dalem, both banjars unite into one single "seka dalem". The administration of the "prayer association" (bidgenootschap) falls under the responsibility of the klian dalem and the pamangku dalem exclusively fulfils the duties of a spiritual leader. The "Seka Mrajan" is organised in a similar way. There is a separate klian mradjan, and a special pamangku takes on the responsibility of the leader of the worship service. The unity of both these banjars with regards to the worshipping of the Pura Mundi is embodied by the Klian Mundi. He represents Klumpu during these gatherings of the communal temple administrators, which take place regularly.

The term "Seka Mundi", however, bares a different meaning than could be expected in analogy to the indication of the "Seka Dalem" and "Seka Mradjan". The "Seka Mundi" comprises the entire veneration group or the perbekelan. With regards to the entire veneration group, the unity Klumpu forms one single "banjar", in the sense of "department or group". Finally, the entire perbekelan Klumpu is part of a larger unit of the "department Dauh Bantas" as far as the nyungsung of the Pura Penataran Ped is concerned. In this respect, the perbekel is in charge of the sanctuaries of Ped and Batu Medau in their present form as these institutions date back to the former Klungkung Rajahdom administration. He is assisted by the klians satus and seket. This service is rendered, given the circumstances, in a natural course of events.

Banjar Kauh and Banjar Kangin

These two banjars are quite different. The Banjar kauh is a purely genealogical group (kawit tunggal, sumbahan abesik) and the members all belong to the house of the "pasek kebon tubuh". These paseks claim direct ancestry to Madjapahit [Other paseks are for example the Pasek Gelgel, Pasek Bendesa, Pasek Gaduh, etc. and are not admitted to the veneration group without good reason. One of the demands is that the pasek in question is "tunggal dadia"]. Anyone can join the Bandjar Kangin [Such associations are called Seka of Pamaksan Susupan, Supsupan or Tutupan. (Cfr. Masusupan = to gain access to something (by force) and nuptupang = to join together).]

The banjar kauh is the oldest and the most important group. Its members venerate their common ancestors in the "ibu kamulan", which is located within separate walls (see image.I), next to the banjar premises, and is to be found at the other side of a alleyway. The perbekel heads the pasek dynasty and as such also performs the duties of the pamangku of the paibon [Nusa Penidian: palibon. During the ngentas the pamangku recites "weda baos bali". He is "makleneng" (he uses the bell (schel).

Apart from this, the klian banjar acts as klian of the seka paibon. The odalan of the ibu kamulan banjar kauh coincides with buda-manis julungwangi. The rerainan are: purnama and tilem]. For the rest, in the "banjar" he is an ordinary member and pays respects to the klian banjar. Apart from this general ibu kamulan, there are no other paibons in the banjar kauh. All married people have their own sanggah kamulan on their premises [After getting married, each young man erects his own "sanggah kemulan". When the person who erected it dies and the rest of his family have also died or married (or have been married out), the sanggah is no longer maintained and disintegrates. The sanggah has its own odalan. The maturan takes place at galungan and kuningan (worship of the ancestors) in a more modest way during other festive days and in case of sickness or disaster.

A single canang is offered on the usual rerainan (on Nusa: purnama and tilem, and not anggar-kasih, buda-kliwon, etc.). In Kutampi, there were signs that the individual kamulan was also referred to as "ibu". This "ibu" is, as it were, a branch of the places of worship of the dynasty: the "palibon dadia". Such a "palibon" (odalan: boeda-wage kelau) is venerated, amongst others, by the descendants of the first reclaimer/cultivator, whom, when they arrived in Nusa, were part of a total of nineteen families.

At Kutampi, the "ibu banjar" is missing, which - according to the people there - is due to the fact that the majority of the banjar members descend from the Klungkung immigrants, from areas where it is not the custom to erect ibu banjars. Virtually nothing is know with regards to the distribution of the ibu banjar. Numerous Balinese mountain desas (e.g. Lateng and Sanda, both located in the district of Kintamani) know a "ibu desa". The sanggah kamulan as well as the palibon are dedicated to ancestor worship. There is only a difference in degree between both places of worship. In the sanggah kamulan, the service rendered to the ancestors is more important. The deceased in the honour of whom the full death ritual is performed (the cremation as well as the feasts after the event (nafeesten), i.e. di "pitara ane kedas" or "tedas" (both words mean: immaculate , spotless), dissolve into the trinity Brahma, Wisnu and Iswara. Hence, the kamulan has three rongs (departments).

As may be evident from above description, the explanation given at Kutampi does not differ from what is customary in Klungkung. The souls for whom the death rituals (doodenfeesten) have not been organised yet, are venerated in the living quarters and in the kitchen (pawaregan). The "patu(w)utan", a ritual which is found especially in Klungkung, i.e a dependency (dépendance) dedicated to the kamulan, not including, however, the purified souls at a lower level, does not occur in Kutampi (patu(w)utan = aanhechtstelsel, aanhang).

Let us return to the three rongs, which comprise the kamulan. In short, it can be stated here that the kamulan in the mountainous areas of Bali (e.g. at Sukawana) also consists of three departments (dépendences?), of which one is dedicated to the sun god and two to the ancestors (male and female). It is understandable that another triplet, namely that of the Hindu trinity, is associated with this, and as a consequence at present the kamulan does not merely contain the "roots" of the pre-Hinduistic service of reverence, but is also dedicated to the trimurti, the "origin" of the "agama tirta".

The orientation of the kamulan to the east is reminiscent of the former veneration of the sun; the arrangement of the three gods in the following order: Wisnu in the north, Iswara in the middle, Brahma in the south, coincides with the nawasanga, in as far it concerns the position of Brahma and Wisnu. The connection between Iswara's characteristics in the nawasanga (position in the east; colour white; emblem: the bajra) and those of the sun god, gave way to the presence in the triplet of the supreme deity of Siwa, with the titles of the shepherd of the east (Iswara).

In order to comprehend how deeply the understanding of the Hinduistic trinity is rooted within the system of pre-endemic imagination, it is worthwhile to examine the equation of the deified ancestors, known under the name of Batara Guru, with Siwa, the teacher par excellence with regards to the system of Caiwasiddhanta, of whom the earthly teacher, the priest, but also the father, is a reflection.

According to their cosmic positions - Wisnu bedajanan and Brahma bedelodan - in the Balinese religious imagination, Wisnu and Brahma represent, in a clear-cut way, the characteristics of a uranic deity as opposed to a chthonic one: Wisnu as the god of whom the rajah, a deity on earth, is a reincarnation and Brahma being the personification of the earthly fire who acts as the keeper of this hearth.

To the east of the ibu kamulan lies the banjar (see image II); during anggar-kasih the monthly sangkepan is held [Not every banjar organises the sangkepan on anggar-kasih. In Pejukutan, for instance, it is held on buda-kliwon and in Kutampi on buda-manis]. At a predetermined moment, the klian beats the kulkul, at which - within a certain period of time - the members of the banjar should present themselves. In some banjars, a water clock is set in motion after the beating of the kulkul (janggi), consisting of a coconut shell, filled with water leaking through a tiny hole. Whomever appears after the coconut shell is empty, is fined.

In the banjar kauh the fine for latecomers is 12 'duiten'. This sum is put into the cash box of the banjar (pipis seka). The klian banjar is in charge of the administration and at every sangkepan he accounts for the administration. The funds are spent on the maintenance of the bale banjar, on the odalan of the umah sanghyang (on buda-kliwon dungulan = galungan) [17. The odalan on galungan is a reference to ancestor worship; modalan (modalin) takes place using bebek, taluh and punjungan] and to 'grondmagie'. 'Grondmagie' consists of purification rituals on tilem kasanga (nyepi) and of the macaru in case of illness or disaster [18. The macaru to ward off illnesses and disaster takes place on kajeng-kliwon, if possible on kajeng-kliwon nuju tilem. The periodical macaru or mesegeh on rerainans does not occur at Klumpu. In Badung, especially, this mesegeh has spread ubiquitously to become a sort of primitive Sandhya-ritual. Mostly, it takes place at the moment the sun passes the zenith and at dawn. Mesegeh on kajeng-kliwon is particularly honoured. The 'small man' (de kleine man) is reminded of this duty through the banjar administration in name of the Cokorda. Formerly, I Gusti Made Tangeb, member of the Raad van Kerta in Denpasar, took on the duties connected with this ritual]. The money in the cash register, which happens to be there, is - if possible - lend out. The interest amounts to 10 'duiten' per atak (200), that is: 5%. When the banjar is in need of cash and his funds are not sufficient, a levy is charged (paturunan).

Returning to the sangkepan, the people present start by cleaning and sweeping the banjar premises. After this, the meeting starts in the bale gede. By turns (giliran), every banjar member should have taken care of the necessary sirih (cane). The person whose turn it is, is called "sinoman" [19. In Bali this is usually called "saja", similar to Kutampi]. Those who during the next sangkepan fulfil the role of sinoman, are reminded of this by being given some fifty ready-made chews of sirih (porosan) in a 'peperhuisje' (kojong) made of packed banana leaves [20. This way of notification is called "numbak"; cfr. in this respect the "tumbakan", the offer, which announces to the deity a wedding in Old-Balinese villages].

The bale gede, where the sangkepan is held, usually has two floors (zitvloeren), although it is not clear what the exact meaning of this form of architecture has (had); at present, common opinion has it that the space between both passage ways is there to render services more convenient. During the meeting, various items are discussed: maintenance and repair of the temples, the way future offering celebrations are to be organised and the way the patusan should be brought to justice during an imminent abenan, and how, in case the banjar fails to act, the perbekel and his cronies throw in their weight [21. Usually, these cases concern issues of debt to the banjar or to one of the sekas, negligence in the fulfilling of the banjar services (bandjardienstplicht) and the payment of pepesuwan, and petty theft. The maximum fine amounts to 125 'duiten' and directly benefits the banjar cash register in question]. During a normal sangkepan, no sacred meal 'heilmaaltijd' is held and no offers are dedicated to the Umah Sanghyang. After the closing of the banjar cash register, the klian banjar offers a canang (sirih for the gods in the form of a flower offering) to Batara Rambut Sedana. The banjar premises are also the place for the communal animal slaughtering (nampah) during cremations, and has a likewise important function during home celebrations such as tooth filing (matatah). The banjar kangin is organised in the same way as in the western banjar. As stated before, any genealogical basis is missing. Still, a communal "ibu banjar" (temple of origin of the banjar) is worshipped (see image III). Apart from this, every family possesses a private paibon.

Essential for the worship of the ibu banjar is the reverence for Batara Guru. The Batara Guru includes the ancestors (prewayah) who are already purified (beresih); as the banjar kangin does not have any communal ancestors, supposedly the original founders of the banjar association are intended. It goes without saying that the one banjar has nothing to do with the reverence of the paibon and of the Umah Sanghyang of the other banjar, though it is true that the banjars cooperate with regards to the patusan (communal assistance at death ceremonies), under the guidance of the klian of the pura dalem [22. Both banjars unite, as it is expressed locally, "to one single seka patus". Concerning the burial rituals, it is worthwhile mentioning here that formerly, if the plan to hold a cremation ceremony for the dead person in question was intended, the corpse was to be buried not on the sema but on the tegalan because one needed to have certainty as to the identity of the skeleton and bones. Something similar was to be found in the villages Satra and Pengotan in Bangli].

Temple system

A. Pura Dalem at Klumpu

The Pura Dalem at Klumpu is "Ulun Setra" (burial temple) and therefore lies in the vicinity of the 'field of death' (doodenakker). The temple is different from the temples know to Bali and reveals a strong degree of 'Hinduinisation' (see image IV). The most prominent deities of this sanctuary are: Batara Guru, Batari Uma and Batari Durga [23. The rule is that with regards to the forms of address of the goddesses, in Balinese the word 'Batara' instead of 'Batari' is used. Concerning the trinity Guru, Uma and Durga, it is worthwhile remembering that the ground plan of the old-style Pura Dalem in Buleleng contains a seat for the sun god, flanked by a gedong (bebajanan) for the male batara di dalem and a gedong (bedelodan) for his female counterpart. Cfr. the kamulan at Sukawana (Note 15)]. A gedong orientated to the east with a trifold stone altar is dedicated to this trinity. Furthermore, it is noteworthy that the Sanggah Manjangan Seluwang (in short: Seluwang), is not dedicated to the Batara Maspait (Majapahit), but to Bagawan Tumanglang. Within the presence of the Ngurah in the south-eastern corner, takings of oaths take place. The present pamangku pura dalem also officiates in the Umah Sanghyang of the Bandjar Kawan. The only animals for ritual sacrifices are pigs (bawi) and ducks (bebek) for the sucis. The klian dalem heads the seka or pamaksan dalem, and he represents the members of both banjars that fall under the jurisdiction of Klumpu. This klihan is elected by the entire seka and it is indifferent whether he belongs to the banjar kauh or the eastern banjar as competence is the only criterion for fulfilling the needs of his office. The present functionary belongs to the banjar kauh and within the present bandjar association he does not have a special position (nyerik). The klian does not dispose of any helpers in the execution of his duties as the klian is personally responsible for calling on his aids (ngarah-arah). The contributions to which the klian is entitled consist of exemptions towards contributing in kind (reramon) for the benefit of the Pura Dalem, whilst at the same time he receives two portions at the time he determines the madumduman of the duman or joljolan, which are due to every member of the seka during the sacrificial meals. The klian acts as leader of the sangkepan in the pura dalem, which is held every buda-kliwon. During the sangkepan, as is customary, cane is offered. The maintenance of the 'tempelopstallen' (papayongan) and preparations for the upcoming odalans is discussed. During the sangkepan, all noxious growth is removed from the temple grounds (ngiskis) en it is cleaned (ngrisak).

B. Pura Mrajan at Klumpu

The tempel is not far removed from the Karangan Banjar kauh, to the northeast (see image V). Similarly to the dalem, a Bale Sluwang is found here as well, dedicated to Bagawan Tumanglang [24. In the Pura Mranting at Batukandik, there is also a Bale Seluwang, locally called Bale Genteng, a name which refers to the bamboo-'sirappen', with which the building is covered. The Bale Genteng is the seat of the "Watek Jaksa". For information on the Sanggaran of the Pura Mranting, refer to Stutterheim in T.B.G. dl. 92, afl. 2, p.206-210]. In the Ibu Kamulan of the Banjar Kauh this bale appears once more. The placing of the Kaja-kauh corner of the jeroan is typical of this seat of the gods, given the seats, which occur regularly at sanctuaries in the mountainous regions of Bali as far as the Ratu Dukuh and the Ratu Bujangga are concerned. The relationship between the predicates "dukuh", "bujangga" and "bagawan", refers to a likely similarity between the gods known under these these three nomenclatures and hint at identical personalities, albeit different in rank. The name of the sanctuary refers, furthermore, to the dwelling place of the gods that is most prominent in this pura, the threefold "pamerajan" [25. The ordinary meaning of pamerajan, in short mradjan, is: house temple of the triwangsa caste. The house temple of the jabas is referred to as sanggah]. It is a gedong placed towards the east and the seat of Wisnu, Iswara and Brahma, where Batara Guru is equalled to Iswara, the "prewayah" or "pitara", the ancestors [26. The prewayah are: I Bapa Teken I Meme (i.e. those deceased and already purified) = Batara Guru = Batara Iswara. In the Ibu Kamulan of the kawan, the following distinctions are made: Yang Adiguru, Batara Guru and Yang Prama Adiguru]. The taksu is the designated place for the macaru. In the dalem, this takes place outside the temple, for which at the entrance for each occasion a sanggar carucuk is erected. In the Bale Pasamuan, during the offering service, the Maweda takes place and at special occasions a padanda from Klungkung is invited for the execution of the Madewa. Incidentally, it can be mentioned that south of the forecourt of the Pura Mrajan, at the other side of the village street, is a Bale Tajuk (bale tanah), where a gong is sounded during cremations and other major festivities. Moreover, the organisation of the Seka Mradjan shows many similarities with those of the dalem and at every tumpek a sangkepan is held.

C. Pura Mundi

The sangkepan at Pura Mundi coincides with buda-manis and only the fourteen klians from Mundi gather at this occasion. Each village delegates one klian even if the desa consists of more than one banjar. The klian from Rata is considered the most important klian and is called 'klian gede'. The reason for this that the temple is situated within the area of Rata. This “klian gede” also officiates as the pamangku of Pura Mundi. The talks are of the same nature as the ones held during the sangkepans in the temples described above. The cleaning of the temples is the klian's full responsibility during each sangkepan. The only occasion the klian is assisted by banjar members to carry out the orders given by the klian gede is during odalan. The odalan takes place on buda-manis dukut and is celebrated in either a exuberant or a more modest way (ngaturang cicipan), depending on the occasion and year. It is curious that the Pura Mundi is orientated towards the south. In accordance with this position, the jeroan is located to the west of the forecourt (see image VI). The reason for this, according to the local population, is that from the larger part of the perbekelan - situated on the western top of the central mountainous area - the temple is reached along a steep hill slope facing south. Hence, the southern direction, with reference to Pura Mundi, is the highest. On the temple grounds, the sanggaran stands out in form. In the Pamarekan, there are some stone statuettes (pretima), which play a role during the ceremonies needed to generate rainfall. At this occasion, water is pored over these statuettes whilst prayers are recited to beseech (the gods) for rain. There are some bales (pasocen, places for the offerings to the “suci”) that are chosen by certain villages (ngempon) for the benefit of nunas tirta (collecting holy water) during the house ceremonies (huiselijke feesten). When, for instance, during matatah (tooth filing) holy water is requested from Pura Mundi, this “ngempon” is restricted to an offer to the seat of only one god (maturan) and not to all the palinggihs, as is the case when a ceremony is held for the entire veneration group (the perbekelan). For the rest, none of bales is the exclusive possession of one single village. The maintenance of the temple is taken on by all members of the perbekelan whilst at the same time during odalan the palinggih is worshipped during a mebakti ceremony by every individual of the perbekelan. Banjar Cubang, which nowadays falls under Sakti, also collects holy water at Mundi because formerly Cubang was part of the perbekelan Klumpu. Furthermore, in the jeroan there is still a pasimpangan for the bataras of Pura Batu Medau, whilst a similar pasimpangan is missing for Pura Ped. The latter is not needed as the perbekelan belongs to dauh bantas and at regular times [the perbekel] himself travels to Ped to worship (mebakti).

D. Pura Ped

On buda-wage, the perbekels hold sangkepan at Ped. Usually, a klian satus attends the meeting on behalf of the perbekel. When the day of odalan (buda-wage klau) is nigh, however, the perbekel, to whom the organising of the pujawali, by turns, is given, appears in person. He is then accompanied by the klian satus and seket. Pura Ped, too, disposes of funds, which mainly consist of money that was collected in the form of fines during cockfights (danda klecan; naung).

Summary

There are numerous connections through which the lowest 'adatrechtelijke' organisations, the banjars on Nusa, are unified within a larger context. These more or less extended contexts (verbanden) hardly ever offer more than one 'point of contact'. In some cases, when the living communities are spread over more than one banjar association, due to either genealogical or geographical causes, the banjars show their bond in their cooperative efforts when levying patus, and in temple worship. An overall organisation, however, comprising all these aspects of unity, is missing. The unity of relations between the banjars amongst themselves is a multiple unity. A central leadership covering all aspects of village administration does not exist. A communal village administration is missing, and the unity is only embodied in certain charismatic leaders where it concerns very specific objectives. It is remarkable, however, that the perbekelan, an organisation de facto falling outside of the 'adatrechtelijke' relationships, is the one single unity to fulfil a large variety of work tasks. As a unity, the perbekelan acts as a representative in the seka gulungan and during the rituals of worship of both state temples. Some perbekelans constitute one single veneration/worshipping group by themselves. The "banjar" has managed to maintain itself as a banjar association. The uranic community (the "desa"), however, is only partly to be found in some temple associations and veneration/worshipping groups, albeit largely fragmented, and of course in the 'institute' of the pamangkus.

Source

  • Grader, C.J. – Dorpsbestuur en Tempelbeheer op Noesa Penida, in: DJÅWÅ, Tjdschrift van het Java-Instituut, onder redactie van R.A. Prof.Dr. Hoesein Djajadiningrat, J.Kats, S.Koperberg en M.Soeriadiradja, Redactie-Secretaris: Dr.Th.P.Galestein, Zeventiende jaargang, Java-Instituut, Jogjåkartå, (Java), N.O.I., 1937, p.372-393

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