Noesa Penida (Grendeng, 1931)

"No-one at our office knows anyone from Noesa Penida"

Below follows a description of some aspects of Nusa Penida, its traditions, people, language, house rules, temples, religion, the Bali Aga and cremation rituals by I Ketut Grendeng, former district head of Nusa Penida, published in 1930-1931 in a trial version of the magazine “Bhawanagara, a Monthly Letter to Promote Balinese Culture" edited by Dr.R.Goris.

This article, with seemingly arbitrary observations on Nusa Penida, testifies to details of everyday life on the island. As there are doubts on the viability of the descriptions, and to the Indonesian used to describe it, a loose translation in English is given below, for further verification. The original Indonesian text follows below / Teks asli Bahasa Indonesia di bawah ini. The spelling of Indonesian and Balinese words in the English translation is modernised. Remarks by author Godi Dijkman are introduced in square brackets.

One curious remark, in this context, in the description of the language of Nusa Penida is not to be missed, as, according to the author in an editor's note [presumably by Roelof Goris]: "the spelling of the following words cannot be verified, since unfortunately there is no-one at our office who knows anyone from Nusa Penida".

The situation in Nusa Penida, by I Ktoet Grendeng, former district head of Nusa Penida

sampalan erp1925 01Image left: Pura Penataran at Sampalan (Th. van Erp, ca.1925: KITLV, Leiden)

In Nusa Penida, most of the villages do not have a Pura Puseh, and even more villages do not have a Pura Dalem. So for this reason, the Pura Pusehs in Nusa Penida are mostly called Pura Pemaksan. But most of the people in the villages have a Pura Banjar with many Dewa Houses (Rumah Dewa), Pasimpangan [a place where one goes in; a temporary lodging; a closed building in the third court of a temple] and there are also Pesanggaran Agung [temporary lodging, inn, stopping place]. Given this current situation described above, it seems that for most people in Nusa Penida the Pura Banjar is considered the Pura Puseh according to the Balinese people. But there are those who already have a Pura Banjar and at the same time a Pura Pemaksan Puseh. In Nusa Penida there are Pura Bale Agung in Penataran Ped, Batumedau, Mundi, Sa(h)ab, Tundjuk Pusuh and Sompang.

Customs and traditions

In Nusa Penida, the majority of the men and women, if they point at something, they always use their left hand, and do all kinds of things with their left hand. Many of the single girls wear rings on four fingers: the little finger, ring finger, middle finger and index finger.

Wherever the men go, they should wear a travelling-bag, mostly made out of rontal leaves and woven palm leaves as a bag for provisions containing sirih [betel leaf, areca nut and lime] and so on. If he travels about, and he meets a friend, they stop for a moment and offer each other their provision bags and share its contents. Most of the time they take the sirih, as this is considered a token of intimate friendship.

House rules

The rules for building houses are the same for everyone, i.e. first the bedroom "meten" is built, then in the middle the large rice granary (jineng) and finally the kitchen is set up. The rice barns are often repaired, as these are very important for storage of riches, money, gold and silver together with the rice. And if guests are received, they are invited to take a seat on the rice granary. And most people at night sleep in the rice barn as well.

Religion

All the people who live in Nusa Penida belong to the 'Agama Tirta' [old term for Hinduism].

Language

Many Balinese words are used on Nusa Penida, which are different from the ones used on mainland Bali, for example the ones quoted below: (Editor's note: the spelling of the following words cannot be verified, since unfortunately there is no-one at our office who knows anyone from Nusa Penida.) In the village of Tubuhan, Dungkap, Bingin, Buluh, Belalu, Bungkil, [during] 'Delungdungan', when the fruit starts to ripen, the people don't celebrate Galungan (they don't do anything on the day called Redo Kliwon Uku Dugulan). Instead, the people celebrate the day Rebo Kliwon Uku Pahang. If a dead body is buried, it cannot after this be cremated. Cremations can only be done if the dead body has been put in the house (dikurung). And the corpse cannot be put in the house (ngurung) for more than one year, and after this the corpse should be buried.

Table below (p.17-19): a comparison between 'Bahasa Orang Nusa', 'Sama dengan bahasa orang di-Bali' and 'Artinja dalam bahasa Melajoe' and English equivalents by Godi Dijkman.

Nusa Penida Same with Balinese Indonesian English
Agahe Ngagen Sedia available, to be there
Baboeanan Bedoehur Diatas on top, above
Basin Noehanga (Kalahin) Ditinggalkan left alone
Begang      
Beleh Belog Bodoh stupid
Boean Talin sampi Talinja sapi a rope for a cow
Bojeng Ngempoe Djaga anak take care of children, nanny
Dahah Anak tjerik (rare) Kanak toddler, child
Dele Djeneng Barangkali perhaps
Djapan Njanan Nanti later
Djape Didja Dimana where
Djoengoet Boetjoe Pendjoeroe worker
Djooh Sig Di at, in
Endek Toesing Tidak not
Gél Lega Soekatjita happiness, joy
Giling      
Hang Bahang Kasih (beri) give
He Lioe Banjak many/much
Himan Pelimoenan Lebih pagi dari djam 5-5 earlier than 5-6 AM
Karok Bentet Geleng Samben Kapelek Tjenik Samar Tak dapat djalan (habis akal) Ketjil disorderly, vague; no longer able to go, walk
Koeloeb Lablab Reboes boil
Limoen Sandja Sora (djam 5-6) between 5-6 PM
Loenih      
Mekepet Kempel Koempoel gather
Mekosot      
Mepedas Makala-kalaan Selamat kawin happy marriage
Minoes Bikoel Tikoes mouse/rat
Nama Tahen Pernah ever
Naneng Ngojong Diam silent, quiet
Ngadiol Nengil Diam silent
Ngelendin Ngambis Pegang orang perempoean to hold a girl
Njohoeng Toeoen Toeroen go down
Oereg  Maijegang Berbantah (berkelahi) quarrel, disagree
Ohan Timpal Kawan friend
Pahe Paon Dapoer kitchen
Pehet Enggal Lekas quickly
Peraing      
Periboetan Semengan Pagi (djam 5-6) 5-6 AM
Saih Keto Begitoe like that, so
Semek Makita Kepingin wish, want
Seneng      
Setorang Iiehang Poetar turn
Tales Keladi Oebi keladi taro
Taloen Samah Banjak much, many
Telek Tinggar Nampak terang clearly visible
Tikil Telah Habis finished, gone, none left
Tingglih      

Bali Aga

According to many people, one of the languages in Nusa Penida is the original Bali Aga language, used in for instance the village of Kutapang, [by] the family of Rampeg and Nang Kereg. In the village of Lembongan there is said to be many noble 'Pamesan' people, in this way: If someone dies, the corpse is cleansed (mereshihin) with a cushion (galeng) made of lampit wood (tools from Maluku?). During the cremation it is not permitted to use instruments for the cremation tower indicated as 'pagunungan'. The cremation tower should be simple and straightforward (lalimasan). The cloth used to cover the cremations tower (ngodi) can only be a Balinese weft cloth (bebalian) and adorned with 'delungdung' flowers. The cremation tower should then be covered with young sugar palm or jaka leaves (ambu). The 'kajang', which cannot be made by the High Priest, and the tools for the cremation tower called bale-balean are to be made of bamboo and not of wood. 

Source

  • Grendeng, I Ketoet – Dari Hal-Hal di Noesa Penida, oleh I Ketoet Grendeng, dahoeloe Poenggawa District di Noesa Penida; in “Bhawanagara, Soerat boelanan oentuk memperlihatkan peradaban Bali”, redactie Dr.R.Goris, Nomor Pertjobaab, Singaraja Kirtya Liefrinck van der Tuuk, 1930-1931, 5pp.
  • KITLV Images Sampalan

* Teks asli Bahasa Indonesia *

Dari Hal-Hal di Noesa Penida, oleh I Ktoet Grendeng, Dahoeloe Poenggawa District Di Noesa Penida

Dipoelau Noesa-Penida, kebanyakan desa-desa jang tiada mempoenjai Poera Poeseh, dan terlebih banjak desa-desa jang tiada mempoenjai Poera Dalem. Maka Poera Poeseh itoe tjara di Noesa Penida, kebanjakan orang menjeboet Poera Pemaksan. Akan tetapi kebanjakan di desa-desa orang mempoenjai Poera Banjar dengan banjak ada roemah-roemah Dewa, Pesimpangan, dan ada djoega dengan Pesanggaran Agoeng. Memperhatikan sepandjang keadaan terseboet diatas, roepanja Poera Banjar itoelah boeat kebanjakan orang di Noesa-Penida jang dianggap Poera Poeseh tjara orang di Bali. Akan tetapi ada djoega soedah mempoenjai Poera Bandjar lagi poenja Poera Pemaksan Poeseh.Di Noesa-Penida ada Poera Bale-Agoeng, jaitoe: 1. Penataran di-Pèd; 2. Batoemedaoe; 3. Moendi; 4. Saab; 5. Toendjoek Poesoeh; 6. Sompang.

Adat-Istiadat

1. Dipoelau Noesa-Penida kebanjakan orang-orang laki-laki, ataupoen perempoean, kalau menoendjoekkan apa-apa selaloe dengan tangan kirinya, dan banjak berkerdja ini dan itoe dengan tangan kirinja.2. Banjak orang-orang perempoean boedjang jang bertjintjin pada ke-empat djarinja, jaitoe pada: kelingking, djari manis, djari tengah dan teloendjoek.

3. Orang laki-laki kemana ia pergia mesti membawa gandek jang kebanjakan diboeat dari pada daoen rontal dan daoen kelapa teranjam, jaitoe tempat bekalnja, jaitoe sirih atau lain-lainnya.4. Djikalau ia berpergian, maka sepanjang djalan bila ia bertemoe dengan sahabatnja lantas kedoea mereka itoe sama berhenti sebentar seraja satoe sama lain menjerahkan gandeknja serta sama mengambil bekalnja satoe sama lain sekedarnja; kebankakan orang mengambil sirih. Itoelah mendjadi satoe tanda tjinta hatinja.

Peratoeran Tempat Roemah

Pertatuoeran orang mendirikan roemah boleh dibilang semoea sama jaitoe "didoeloe" (hoeloe) roemah tempat tidoernja "meten" lantas ditengah didirikan loemboengnja (djineng) dan "diteben" (hilir) baharoe dapoernja. Dan kebanjakan jang diperbaiki itoelah loemboengnja, karena loemboeng amat dioetamakan, jaitu digoenakan menjimpan harta-bendanja wang dan mas-perak tjampoer dengan padi. Dan djikalau ia menerima tamoe, maka diloemboeng itoelanh deiterimanja (dipersilahkan doedoeknja). Dan semoea orang-orang waktoe malam teroetama tidoer deloemboengnja itoe.

Agama

Orang-orang Bali jang berdiam di-Noesa-Penida, semoeanja beragama Tirta.

Bahasa

Banjak sekali kata-kata (bahasa) orang Bali dipoelau Noesa-Penida, jang berlainan dengan bahasa orang dipoelau Bali misalnya sebagai terseboet dibwawah ini: (Noot redactie. Edjaan toelisan perkataan-perkataan jang beroeroet ini tiada dapat diperbaiki, karena sajang seklai tiada seorang dari kami Redactie mengetahoei bahwa orang pendoedoek Noesa Penida.)

7. Di desa Toeboean, Doengkap, Bingin Boeloeh, Belaloe, Boengkil. Deloengdoengan, orang-orang desa tidak merajakan hari Galoengan (tidak bikin apa-apa pada hari Rebo keliwon oekoe Doegoelan) tetapi orang desa itoe merajakan hari Rebo keliwon oekoe Pahang, sebagai merajakan hari Galoengan (hari Rebo keliwon Doengoelan).

8. Djikalau orang mati dan djikalau telandjoer majitnja telah ditanam kemoedian tidak boleh diaben lagi. Hanja orang boleh mengaben kalau dari waktoenja orang mati majit itoe disimpan diroemahnja (dikoeroeng). Dan orang simpan majit diroemah (ngoeroeng) tiada boleh lebih dari satoe tahoen lamanja, bila lebih mesti dibawa dikoeboer lagi.

7. Orang Bali-Aga

Kata banjak orang, bahasa dipoelau Noesa-Penida ada djoega orang Bali Aga (Bali asal) jaitoe didesa Koetapang sefamilie Nang Rampeg dan Nang Kereg. Dan di desa Lembongan ada djoega kata banjak orang bangsa Pamesan, tjaranja: Kalau ada orang mati, waktoe memandikan majitnja (mereshihin) pakai bantal (galeng) dari pada kajoe lampit (perkakas maloekoe) maka kalau mengaben wadahnja tidak boleh memakai alat2 jang dinamakan pagoenoengan, wadahnja hanja papolosan sadja (lalimasan). Dan kain jang dipakai menoetoep wadah itoe (ngodi) tiada boleh lain dari pada kain djarang tenoenan bali (bebalian) dan dihiasi dengan boenga pohon kajoe deloengdoeng. Dan wadah ditoetoep dengan daoen enau jang moeda (amboe). Pakai kadjang boekan bikinan dari Padanda dan alat wadahnja jang dinamakan bale-balean diboeat dari pada bamboe dan tidak boleh dari pada kajoe.

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