Morphology of Nusa Penida dialect (Darma Laksana, 1977)

Professor I Ketut Darma Laksana, Department of Linguistics, Faculty of letters at Udayana University at Denpasar-Bali (August 2013), has been so kind to share with the author his thesis on Nusa Penida dialect, published 27 May 1977. He discusses, amongst other issues, the similarities and differences as compared to standard Balinese. He also refers to the differences with Lembongan dialect. Additional remarks by author God Dijkman have been introduced in square brackets.

The original Indonesian text can be found under a different 'rung' in the same dropdown menu / teks asli Bahasa Indonesia dapat dibaca pada halaman yang berbeda di dropdown menu ini.

Morphology of Nusa Penida dialect: Definition

darmalaksana 1977 map 58

The language spoken on Nusa Penida is considered a Bali Aga dialect (Wayan Jendra dkk, 1976:230), but it has not received a great deal of linguistic attention. Other fields of study, however, have received scholarly attention, such as experimental rearing of 'perah' cattle, sorghum planting, research into the health situation etc. The national language Bahasa Indonesia has impacted the local language, and vice versa. The same is valid for other regional and foreign languages, a process, which has given rise to better interregional relations, migration and inter-ethnic marriages (Amran Halim, 1974:143). Nusa Penida dialect, therefore, should be thoroughly studied and documented, all the more since the attitude and loyalty of Nusa Penida dialect speakers is waning considerably (Wayan Jendra dkk, 1976:204).

Background

Nusa Penida dialect speakers live in Melaya (Jembrana) and the transmigration areas of South Sumatra, Kalimantan, Central and Southeast Sulawesi. By far the largest group of Nusa Penida dialect speakers, however, live on Nusa Penida. The island of Nusa Penida lies southeast of Bali, and is the largest island in the vicinity of Bali, measuring 414 km2; it is part of the District of Klungkung. Connections to and from Nusa Penida are less than favourable. The closest point on mainland Bali to Nusa Penida is Kusamba, and the journey by motorboat takes around two hours. Some villages on the island are connected by tarmacked roads, while others cannot be reached by car. Nusa Penida is a subdistrict, Sampalan its capital and the islands of Lembongan and Ceningan are part of it. According to a census held in 1971, the subdistrict of Nusa Penida comprised 13 villages with a total population of 49,102; for details see table below:

No.

Perbekel

Family heads

Age 0-6

Age 7-17

Age 18-45

Age 46 -

Total

1. Batununggul 680 792 1625 1312 332 4041
2. Suana 712 825 2530 2833 862 7050
3. Tanglad 325 346 925 785 325 2389
4. Sekartadji 310 333 825 790 86 2025
5. Batukandik 695 751 2362 1450 460 5023
6. Batumadeg 330 655 675 962 91 2383
7. Klumpu 517 670 567 1655 693 3585
8. Ped 685 714 1708 1237 228 4098
9. Kutampi 501 775 2747 1222 422 5146
10. Sakti 692 732 2629 2615 710 6686
11. Lembongan 541 628 1702 1310 197 3837
12. Jungutbatu 313 595 912 910 162 2579
13. Toyapakeh 78 87 88 66 19 260
Total   6739 7903 20,093 17,148 4347 49,102

(p.3) Image left: Number of inhabitants according to 1971 census (Source: Statistik 1971 at Subdistrict's Office (Sampalan?) Nusa Penida. Legenda: No. = number; KK (Kepala Keluarga) = family heads

The majority of Nusa Penidians are Hindus and their religion is called 'Hindu Dharma'. The other religion is Islam, with around 200 followers, found exclusively in the harbour of Toyapakeh on the north coast. The majority of Nusa Penidians use Nusa Penida dialect, except for the inhabitants of Nusa Lembongan and Nusa Ceningan (see below). Secondly, the Balinese Klungkung dialect is only spoken by the people of Toyapakeh. This is probably due to the influence of socialising of those originally from the 'Islam village' of Kusamba on mainland Bali, of whom many now reside in Toyapakeh. Other languages, such as Indonesian or foreign languages, are rarely spoken.

Location

Given the weak infrastructure on the island, the samples used for this research are representative of the Nusa Penida dialect spoken in the village of Ped. Rationale: 1) All the villages on the island have the same vocabulary, and differ only in sentence melody; 2) Ped has not undergone excessive influence by speakers of foreign languages when compared to the village of Batununggul (northeast coast), the trade centre located closer to the district capital [Sampalan] and more advanced where its education is concerned; 3) Ped can be easily reached - reducing cost, time and manpower - i.e. seven kilometres to the west of Sampalan. The larger Ped area used to be place where the rajahdom of King Bungkut was established and is the author's birthplace. Ped measures 290,75 ha of dry land and borders on the Badung Strait to the north, the village of Kutampi to the east, the village of Klumpu to the south and the 'Islam village' Toyapakeh to the west. The majority of the people at Ped are farmers. Only a few inhabitants have alternative means of income and are traders, sailors, craftsmen or civil servants. Ped consist of 10 banjars and has 4098 inhabitants, see details below:

No. Banjar Family heads

Age 0-6

Age 7-17

Age 18-45

Age 46 -

Total

1. Adegan 98

55

97 240 33 415
2. Bisung 102 142 251 383 44 820
3. Pendem 71 90 201 111 15 417
4. Bodong 49 26 41 99 10 176
5. Seming 49 37 56 60 17 170
6. Serangen 59 41 136 71 27 275
7. Perapat 27 23 39 21 7 90
8. Tanahbias 38 45 48 35 10 138
9. Nyuh 59 65 39 25 21 150
10. Sental 133 290 800 197 59 1346
Total   658 714 1708 1237 228 4098

(p.7) Image: Number of inhabitants in the 10 banjars of Ped, according to 1971 census (Source: Satistik 1971 at Subdistrict's Office (Sampalan?) Nusa Penida. Legenda: No. = number; KK (Kepala Keluarga) = family heads

Phoneme (distribution) System of the dialect of Nusa Penida at a glance

Although the subject of this thesis is morphology, phonemes (distribution) within the dialect of Nusa Penida, however, should be discussed as well. The phoneme system with regards to Nusa Penida dialect bears similarities to that of Balinese (Refer to: Wayan Jendra "Fonologi Bahasa Bali" 1976, 9-23). The difference lies in the fact that (a) in Balinese the phoneme /h/ does not exists as initial/primary distribution (distribusi awal), but in Nusa Penida dialect phoneme /h/ is fairly common in this position; (b) a number of words in Balinese start with the vocal phoneme /i/ in an initial open vocal /i/, whereas in Nusa Penida dialect they start with phone vocal /e/, and (c) a number of words start with the vocal /u/ in a first open syllable /u/, but in Nusa Penida dialect they start with the phoneme vocal /o/. Regarding the distribution of vocals /h/, /e/ and /o/ in Nusa Penida dialect, refer to Wayan Jendra cum suis "Sebuah Deskripsi tentang Latar Belakang Sosial Budaya Bahasa Bali, 1976, 231-234.

Nusa Penida dialect

Nusa Penida dialect can be characterised as a Bali Aga dialect. The differences with other Bali Aga dialects are: the disappearance of the phoneme distribution /a/ at the end of words. Other characteristics of Bali Aga dialect, however, are retained (Wayan Jendra cum suis, 1976:230): 1. active distribution of phoneme /h/ in the middle and beginning of words; 2. active distribution of suffix /-ñə/ and /-cə/, which comprises an allomorph of the suffix {-ə}; 3. fast intonation and a relatively harsh dynamic stressing; 4. vocabulary of the dialect is similar to other Bali Aga dialects. Below, there is a list of Nusa Penida dialect words written in phonetic spelling, accompanied with Indonesian [and English] translation.

It has already been mentioned that the smaller islands of Lembongan and Ceningan do not use Nusa Penida dialect, although administratively they fall under the same subdistrict of Nusa Penida. Some remarks, then, on the dialect spoken on Lembongan and Ceningan. The dialect spoken on both islands is also characterised as Bali Aga dialect (Wayan Jendra cum suis, 1976:196). They lie at around half an hour distance from Toyapakeh harbour on Nusa Penida. According to the author, these two smaller islands share the same language traits, henceforth called 'Lembongan dialect', as Ceningan is part of the village of Lembongan. The main difference between Nusa Penida and Lembongan dialect lies not only in the difference in intonation, but also in the vocabulary. This being said, Nusa Penida dialect speakers do understand their neighbouring brethren from Lembongan, and vice versa. This may be due to the vicinity of these three islands, and their frequent communication.Below table gives vocabulary from Lembongan dialect, their equivalents in Nusa Penida dialects and English translation.

Table below: vocabulary from Lembongan dialect & equivalents in Nusa Penida dialects and English, integrated tables (p.12, 16-17)

Nusa Penida Dialect Nusa Lembongan Dialect Indonesian English
/abəken/
/amotcen/ seberapa as much as, so and so many
/ahuban/ /əkəbaŋ/ sembunyikan hide
/akekit/ /abədik/ sedikit a little
/asebak/   sebelah side
/awahi/ /awai/ sehari daily
/abañə/   dibawa taken, brought
/babar/   tepat, kok precisely, expression of wonder
/baŋkag/   kenyang full, having had enough food, stuffed

/bətək/

/warəg/ kenyang full, having had enough food, stuffed
/bəhaŋ/   beri give
/bəhat/ /baat/ berat heavy
/betoə/
  digali dug (dig)
/betəh/   balik reverse, upside down
/caŋkok/ /kau-kau/ tempurung, ke- piece of coconut shell
/ceciŋ/ /kuluk/ anjing dog
/cototoə/   dipatuk peck, bite; grab with the beak; manage to achieve
/cəlekuh/   terus ikut follow
/dakəp/ /dakət/ tangkap catch
/copək/   sempit narrow
/dento/ /ditu/ di situ there
/daki/   kotor filthy, dirty
/deŋəh/   dengar listen
/deŋin/   dingin cold
/dundunñ ə/   dibangunkan to be woken up
/edə/ /cai/ engkau you
/edup/ /idut/ hidup live
/əndək/ /tusiŋ/ tidak not
/ekuh/   ekor tail; measure word for animals
/enəm/ /inən/ minum drink
/esəp/   isap suck
/gələŋ/ /cənik/ kecil small
/gresik/   sekedar makan to eat something small
/gaŋsuran/ /cacah/ ketela parut, cacah ground yams; cut up, chopped up
/hanak/ /panak/ anak child
/haninə/   lelakinya the man, husband
/halə/   tetapi but, however
/he/ /liu/ banyak much, many
/həb/   potong cut
/həŋken/ /kenken/ bagaimana how, in what way?
/heman/   pagi-pagi early in the morning
/həntə/   begitu so
/hud/   kelapa muda young coconut
/jaən/   enak tasteful
/jədig/   kurang sopan not well-behaved, course
/jalikan/   perapian fireplace, brazier, ignition; oven
/jam/ /jan/ arloji wrist watch, clock
/jahum/ /jaun/ jarum needle
/jəlap/ /jəlat/ sengaja on purpose
/kahətoə/   digigit bitten, stung (by insects)
/kolə/   aku I
/kenaŋ/   agar jangan rather not
/lakun/   karena because, as
/lancuh/   mencret have diarrhroea
/lasyə/   sampai hati be felt to the heart
/mampəh/   terbang fly
/masəh/   mencuci wash
/mataŋ/ /nəŋil/ diam silent
/mətahiŋ/ /məkəntə/ tidak makan-makan not (willing to) eat something
/m ədəm/ /mədən/ tidur sleep
/mempug/   melempar throw
/məsiŋ/ /misiŋ/ mencret suffer of diarrhea
/nebot/   kiri left
/neŋəh/ /niŋəh/ mendengar listen
/ñəpit/   menjepit hold something by clamping or pinching
/ñətoə/   kemauannya will, desire (to do something)
/ñano/   siapa gerangan who on earth? (expression of wondering or doubt)
/orəg/   berkelahi fight, row
/osap/ /usat/ gosok rub
/oyah/   garam salt
/ojan/ /ujan/ hujan rain
/oluŋ/ /uluŋ/ jatuh fall
/pəhəs/ /pəəs/ ludah saliva, spittle
/paon/ /poon/ dapur kitchen
/pedan/ /pidan/ kapan when?
/pəlancah/   pelayan servant
/pəcut/   cemeti whip
/səbak/   buka open
/sabrut/   kacau chaos
/serah/ /dur/ kepala head
/tanəm/ /tanən/ tanam to plant
/takəp/ /takət/ tutup close
/tənəs/   lahap ravenous, gluttonous
/təhuŋ/   terung eggplant
/timpas/   parang short machete, chopping knife
/tolaŋ/ /tulaŋ/ tulang bone
/toyuh/ /tuyuh/ lelah weak, tired, without energy
/tundenñə/
  disuruh be asked/sent to do something

Considering the vocabulary of these two dialects, a marked difference between the words can be noted, although they have the same meaning. Besides, there is also a difference in phonemes: 1. In Nusa Penida dialect, phoneme /h/ still exists in an initial and middle position, whereas this is not the case in Lembongan dialect; 2. Phoneme /m/ in final position in Nusa Penida dialect, becomes phoneme /n/ in Lembongan dialect; 3. Phoneme /p/ in final position of words in Nusa Penida dialect changes into /t/ in Lembongan dialect; 4. In a number of words in Lembongan dialect, starting with the vowel /i/ in a first open syllable, the /i/ becomes /e/ in Nusa Penida dialect; 5. In a number of words in Lembongan dialect, starting with the vowel /u/ in a first open syllable, the /u/ becomes /o/ in Nusa Penida dialect.

On various morphemes in Nusa Penida dialect - Root word

To discuss root words in Nusa Penida dialect, a number of definitions should be reviewed. /məhanak/ (have children), for instance, is one word consisting of two morphemes. /homah/ (house), /margə/ (walk, go) and /təhiŋ/ (bamboo) are each one word consisting of one morpheme. So the definition of 'word' is a minimal free form. In other words: each free form constitutes a word. A morpheme is the smallest form, a form that cannot have any other form than this basic component. Forms such as /gonuŋ/ (mountain), /ebə/ (we), /hoñə/ (out of stock, no longer available, finished), which in normal speech can function independently are called free forms, whereas /pə-/, /mə-/, /-an/, and /-aŋ/, which in normal speech cannot function independently and are always bound to other forms are called bound form. Words consisting of one morpheme are called singular words and those consisting of two or more morphemes are called complex or compound words.

Considering the complex word /məpaəkan/ (adjacent) and analysing its direct components, i.e. the components, which directly form a larger form, can be separated into: /mə-/ and /paəkan/; /paəkan/, can be separated into /paək/ and /-an/. The form /paək/, the root of a larger form, is called base or root form. Furthermore, in the formation process, the base or root form /paək/ gives rise to /paəkan/; /paəkan/ becomes /məpaəkan/. In this respect, /paək/ is the basic form of /paəkan/ and /paəkan/ is the basic form of /məpaəkan/. So is can be stated that the basic form is the linguistic form, both singular and complex, which constitutes the base of a larger form (M. Ramlan, 1976:7-14). Baring this in mind, the following definition of a base can be given: all the forms that constitute a singular word can be categorised as a base ('kata dasar', root word). See below, for some examples of this:

Table below (p.20): root words as free morphemes

Root word Indonesian English
/tohuh/ kering dry
/bahu/ tadi just now, a short while ago, former
/gətap/ penakut coward
/egar/ tenang calm
/bərag/ kurus slim, thin, meagre
/dahət/ siang daytime
/hud/ kelapa muda young coconut
/jədig/ kurang sopan not well-behaved, ill-mannered
/lepəh/ lelah weak
/cəlaŋ/ cerdas intelligent, smart
/pəcut/ cemeti whip

All the root words above can surely be categorised as free morphemes, as all the forms in ordinary speech can function independently as they are free and not bound by other forms.

Affixation

Affixation is adding an affix to a word (form), both singlular and complex, to create a new word. An affix is a word (form), which, within a word, constitutes a direct component and not a free form, and can be attached to other (word) forms in order to form new words. This affix, when attached to the front of the base or basic form is called a prefix; an affix attached at the back of the base is called a suffix and an affix inserted in the middle of a base is called infix. Sometimes, a prefix and suffix are found together attached to the same base. This is called confix (M.Ramlan, 1976:15-18). Considering above definitions, no affixes are placed in the middle of bases in Nusa Penida dialect. Hence, the discussion on affixation in the dialect of Nusa Penida includes prefix, suffix and confix.

Suffix: form, function and meaning

A prefix is the form, which is bound and placed in front of the base or basic form. In Indonesian exist the following prefixes: me-, ber-, di-, ter- etc. (M. Ramlan, 1976:18). This is also the case for Nusa Penida dialect, where there are many types of prefixes as explained below:

A. Prefix {pə-}

a. Form. According to the form of the prefix {pə-}, two different types can be distinguished: 1. prefix {pə}, which can exist independently or is a permanent {pə-} [?]; 2. prefix {pə-} which is joined with a nasal prefix. The formation of a word with the prefix {pə-} in the first case, if it has the function to form an adjective (kata keadaan). E.g.: /pəkəseh/ whisper); /pəgəlur/ (call, shout out repeatedly); /pəhemaŋ/ be in a hurry); /pəslewar/ (crisscross); /pəgroñuŋ/ (swarm over, cluster around, mill about; assemble, come together); /pəslambah/ (be scattered around).

In the first category, a small number [of words] start with the prefix {pə-} to form nouns. I.e.: /pəlancah/ (servant); /pəweseh/ (gift); /pəsaluk/ (clothes, jewellery)

Words starting with the prefix {pə-} in the second category form nouns. E.g.: /pəŋancuh/ (tool used to get rid of water, which has entered a jukung); /pəñukjuk/ (planting tool); /pəməlas/ witchcraft); /pənapət/ (heir).

From above data, it can be observed that prefix {pə-} has to be joined with the nasal prefix. E.g.: /pəŋancuh/. The base of /pəŋancuh/ is /kancuh/. Now, it has to be investigated whether {pə-} is possibly joined with /kancuh/? forming the word /pəkancuh/. In normal speech, /pəkancuh/ does not exist. Hence, {pə-} is to be joined with the nasal prefix, and words are formed like /pəŋancuh/. The nasal prefix was initially joined with the form /kancuh/, so that it became /ŋancuh/. As a reseult /kancuh/ becomes the base or basic form of /ŋancuh/. Consequently, prefix {pə-} is joined with /ŋancuh/, so that is becomes /pəŋancuh/. In this respect /ŋancuh/ becomes the base of /pəŋancuh/. This is also valid for /pəñukjuk/. The base is /jukjuk/. The nasal prefix is first joined with /jukjuk/, forming the word /ñukjuk/. Then, the prefix {pə-} is joined with the word /ñukjuk/, so that the word /pəñukjuk/ is formed. In this respect, /jukjuk/ becomes the base of /ñukjuk/, whereas /ñukjuk/ becomes the base of /pəñukjuk/. And so forth.

b. Function: the funtion of the prefix {pə-} is to form a noun and words expressing a condition or capacity.

c. Meaning: The meaning supported by prefix {pə-} are:

1. as a meaningful noun former (pembentuk kata benda): a. expressing a tool, e.g.: /pəsaluk/ (jewellery); /pəməlas/ (withcraft); /pəmaji/ (pin, peg, dowel; belt; pivot, axis; turning point); /pəñukjuk/ (planting tool); b. expressing 'people who perform a certain task/job, as expressed in the base or basic form, e.g.: /pəlancah/ (servant); /pəŋaŋon/ (shepherd); /pəŋrampas/ (robber); /pənapət/ (heir); 2. as a former of adjectives (kata keadaan) containing meaning 'move or sound, e.g.: /pəkəseh/ (whisper); /pəslewar/ (crisscross); /pəhemaŋ/ (be in a hurry); /pəclublub/ (to go in and out).

B. Prefix {mə-}

a. Form: In general, prefix {mə-} is added in front of a word without changing its form. E.g.: /məkəseh/ (whisper); /məkandə/ (cook); /məklambi/ (wear clothing); /məhomah/ (reside, live); /məhojan/ (rain). If the initial phoneme of the word to which it is attached starts with a vocal phoneme, regressive assimilation takes place, where the phoneme /ə/ of the prefix {mə-} is assimilated. E.g.: /məoləs/ becomes /moləs/ (have a good apprearance); /məndan/ becomes /madan/ (be called); /məedeŋ/ becomes /medeŋ/ (be shown); /məoŋkab/ becomes /moŋkab/ (open).

b. Function: the funtion of the prefix {mə-} is to form a verb.

c. Meaning: The meanings, which can be supported by the prefix {mə-} are: 1. Possess, e.g.: /moləs/ (have a good apprearance); /madan/ (be called); /məboŋa/ (flower, blossom); /məhanak/ (have children); 2. Use or wear, e.g.: /məbedak/ (sail); /məklambi/ (wear clothing); /mərambəd/ (wear a shawl or stole over one's shoulders or diagonally across body); /məajan/ (with steps); 3. Get or produce, e.g.: /məbati/ (be lucky); /mətaluh/ (lay eggs); /məhojan/ (rain); /mopah/ (take the form of, is or are); 4. Explain/express one's own behaviour or reflections, e.g.: /məpayas/ (be decorated or adorned; dress oneself); /məbetəh/ (turn around, return, go back); /məkəlid/ (get out of the way, move to evade); /məraup/ (wash one's face).

C. Prefix {kə-}

a. Form: In general, the prefix {kə-} is added to the front of a word without altering its form. E.g.: /kəsələk/ (cornered); /kəbatək/ (forced); /kəpaŋgluŋ/ (be mad about, be infatuated); /kəlelih/ (defeated); /kəsrayə/ (message, order); /kətaŋəh/ (be known).

If the added words start with a vocal phoneme, regressive assimilations occurs, where the phoneme /ə/ of the prefix {kə-} is assimilated. E.g.: /kəopah/ becomes /kopah/ (payment for dances); /kəandəp/ becomes /kandəp/ (a young girl get married and sold off); /kəopat/ becomes /kopat/ (busy); /kəenəm/ becomes /kenəm/ (drench, water cattle).

b. Function and meaning: As the function and meaning of the prefix {kə-} is more than once and also parallell with the supported meaning, its funtion and meaning are discussed here together; 1. Expresses an abstract noun, e.g.: /kəpaŋgluŋ/ (be mad about, be infatuated); /kəlelih/ (defeated); /kəbatək/ (forced); /kopat/ (occupation, hobby, activity); 2. Expresses a passive verb, e.g.: /kopah/ (payment for dances); /kandəp/ (a young girl get married and sold off); /kəsələk/ (cornered); /kətaŋəh/ (be known).

D. Prefix {sə-}

a. Form: the prefix {sə-} as affix does not change in form in conjunction with other forms. E.g.: /səpətəŋ/ (last night); /sətəgəh/ (as tall as); /səwaras/ (as thick as); /səjoh/ (as far as); /səbəhat/ (as heavy as).

b. Meaning: The meanings supported by the prefix {sə-} are: 1. /sətauləh/ (as fas as I know); /səbesaləh/ (the best I can); /sətəgəhdə?/ (as tall as you); /səbakateə/ (agree); 2. Occuring at the same time as, e.g.: /səkalahdə/ (the moment you left); /sətəkalə/ (the moment I arrived); /səsobalə/ (the moment it was finished); 3. each or every, e.g.: /səwahi/ (daily); /səpətəŋ/ (every night); /sədahət/ (every noon); 4. a maximum measurement, e.g.: /səbəhət- bəhəteə/ (as heavy as possible); /səhe-heñə/ (as much or many as possible); /sətegəh-təgəhə/ (as tall or high as possible); /səjoh-johə/ (as far as possible).

Suffix: form, function and meaning

The meaning of a suffix is the bound form, which is joined at the back of the base or basic form. As is the case in Indonesian, there are suffixes such as: -i, -kan, -an, -nya and so forth (M. Ramlan, 1967:18). This is also the case in Nusa Penida dialect where bound forms are found as suffixes. The many forms are explained below:

A. Sufix {-an}

a. Form: The form of the suffix {-an} does not change in adjoining it with other forms. b. The function of the suffix {-an} is to form nouns. Apart from this, it also functions to form passive verbs; c. The meanings supported by the suffix {-an} are: a. to form nouns, with the following meanings: 1. tools, e.g.: /saŋihan/ (sharpener, grinder, whetstone); /apitan/ (tweezers, clip, clamp); /kikihan/ (coconut grinder); /taŋkəban/ (pair of pincers, clamp); 2. Place, e.g.: /tanəman/ (grave), /joŋkokan/ (place to sit down), /pədəman/ (sleeping place, bed), /padasan/ (shower place); 3. Measurement, e.g.: /wahian/ (daily); (p.30) /bolanan/ (monthly); /tebanan/ (yearly); /siuan/ (thousandfold); 4. If the suffix {-an} is added to an adjective in a repetitive form, it becomes a superlative, e.g.: /puntul-puntulan/ (as blunt as possible); /bəcat- bəcatan/ (as quickly as possible); /waras-warasan/ (as fat as possible); 5. Comperative, e.g.: /təgəhan/ (taller, higher); /jahanan/ (later); /babuanan/ (on higher up); /warasan/ (fatter); b. As a former of passive verbs. E.g.: /basəhan/ (wash); /oyahan/ (salten something, worsen the situation?); /kənəhan/ (think about, worry over, be aware, mindful of); /ajahan/ (teach)

B. Sufix {-aŋ}

a. Form: suffix {-aŋ} does not change form. b. Function: the function supported by suffix {-aŋ} is a transitive or intransitive verb 'former'. Besides, suffix {-aŋ} also has the funtion of a causative verb former. c. Meaning: the meanings supported by suffix {-aŋ} are derived from its threefold funtion, i.e. as intransitive, transitive and causative verb formers.

(a) Intransitive: 1. If suffix {-aŋ} is place before an adjective, it contains the meaning 'increasingly', e.g.: /ŋitikaŋ/ (less and less); /ñugihaŋ/ (increasingly richer); /ŋəwahasaŋ/ (increasingly beter in health); /ŋətədaŋ/ (increasingly thick (syrup), increasingly strong (coffee); 2. If suffix {-aŋ} is placed before an adverb of direction, it contains the meaning 'move towards -', e.g.: /ŋauhaŋ/ (move westward); /ŋəhəpaŋ/ (move forward, to the front); /ŋətəŋahaŋ/ (move to the middle); /ŋəlodaŋ/ (move southwards).

(b) Transitive: 1. If the root word is a transitive verb, the suffix {-aŋ} perhaps only deepens the meaning of the root word (verb), e.g.: /ŋurukaŋ/ (teach); /ŋəlahaŋ/ (possess); /neŋəhaŋ/ (listen); /ŋisiaŋ/ (grip, get hold of); 2. expresses the maning 'on behalf of other people', [benefactive]', e.g.: /alihaŋ/ (to look for something for someone else); /blihaŋ/ (to buy something for someone else); /alapaŋ/ (to pick for someone else); /tomanaŋ/ (to make available for someone else).

(c) Causative: 1. expresses the meaning 'to make, let', e.g.: /jalanaŋ/ (make something work, go); /joŋkokaŋ/ (make something or someone sit down); /jujukaŋ/ (make something or someone stand up); /lantaŋaŋ/ (make something longer); 2. expresses the meaning 'call or treat someone or something as', e.g.: /edaaŋ/ (to call someone 'you'?); /memeaŋ/ (call someone mother?); /dewaaŋ/ (treat something or someone as a god); /təŋətaŋ/ (treat someone like a friend).

C. Suffix {-ə}

a. Form: the suffix {-ə} forming a passive verb is subject to change (alomorph) and becomes /-ñə/ and /-cə/. It changes into /-ñə/ if placed at the back of words, which end in phoneme /n/ and vocal phoneme, e.g.: /tundenñə/ (ordered to do something); /warinñə/ (made known); /abañə/ (taken, brought); /pareñə/ (shared); /badeñə/ (guessed); it changes into /-cə/ if placed onto words ending with the phoneme /t/, e.g.: /cocotcə/ (pecked, grabbed, managed to achieve); /habucə/ (taken off); /gutgutcə/ (bitten); /ohutcə/ (massaged, caressed); whereas the form remains {-ə} if it is placed at the back of words that end in phonemes /p/, /b/, /m/, /d/, /s/, /l/, /r/, /k/, /g/, /ŋ/, /h/. For example:

Image below: table p.33-34

Nusa Penida Dialect Indonesian English
/sañgrəpə/ disambar striken, attacked
/osapə/ dihapus wiped off, away
/oŋkabə/ dibuka opened
/atəbə/ dilempar thrown
/tanəmə/ ditanam planted
/siamə/ disiram watered
/toludə/ didorong pushed
/saŋidə/ disaring filtered, refined, sifted
/gagasanə/ digaruk rounded up
/kəbesə/ dirobek torn
/təgulə/ diikat tied
/saŋkilə/ dijinjing carried on one's hand
/jagurə/ dipukul hit
/gunturə/ dilempar thrown
/adukə/ diaduk mixed
/gahukə/ diterkam pounced on
/ojogə/ dituju aimed
/gəbəgə/ dihapus wiped off, away
/səmbuhə/ disembur squirted, spurted
/amahə/ dimakan eaten
/waraŋə/ diberitahukan made known
/olaŋə/ dicapatkan ?
 
b. Function of the suffix {-ə} is to form passive verbs. c) Meaning. The meaning suported by suffix {-ə} is to express the passive form, e.g.: /cootcə/ (pecked, grabbed, managed to achive); /ojogə/ (aimed); baksinñə/ (left alone); /osapə/ (wiped out).

Form, function and meaning of confix

A confix is an afix, which consists of two elements (prefix and suffix), which together are attached to a base or basic form representing a specific meaning. Examples in Indonesian: 'ke-an' in 'keadaan' (condition, capacity) is a confix, because 'ke-an' is attached to the base 'ada' (to be), and this is proven by the fact that 'keada' or 'adaan' do not exist (M. Ramlan, 1967:19). This also holds true for Nusa Penida dialect where confixes are found. Examples follow below:

A. Confix {mə-an}

a. Form: confix {mə-an} does not change when attached to other forms; b. its funtion is to form verbs; c. the meaning supported by this confix is: 1. /məsəpedaan/ (drive a (motor)cycle); /məjaranan/ (ride a horse); /məjukuŋan/ (sail a jukung); /məkolekan/ (sail a sampan); 2. expresses attitude or behaviour, e.g.: /məklasahan/ (nap on the floor); /məsocapan/ (speak).

B. Confix {pə-an}

a. The form of confix {pə-an} does not change; b. its function is to form nouns and adjectives (kata keadan); c. its meaning is: (a) a noun former with the following meanings: 1. place, e.g.: /pəñəkəban/ (ripening, hatching, brooding, hatchery); /pənanəman/ (planting place); /pəŋañutan/ (place of exile, banishment, elimination, romoval, renunciation); /pənomaŋan/ (place where limestone is made); 2. tools, e.g.: /pəñoŋkrakan/ (plow); /pəñoliŋan/ (spining wheel); /pəñahipan/ (sifting, filtering, screening, selection device); /pəŋradakan/ (type of plow); b. an adjective (kata keadaan) expressing unity, e.g.: /pəpaduan/ (in pairs); /pəñaman/ (friendship), /pəkuŋsian/ (consortium, merchant's association).

C. Confix {kə-an}

a. The form does not change; b. The funtion of the confix {kə-an} is to form nouns and adjectives (kata keadaan). c. The meaning supported by the confix {kə-an} is 1) a former of nouns, e.g.: /kəmulan/ (main); /kəmoŋan/ (panic); /kərsuhan/ (possessed by spirit); /kəsəŋitan/ (stinging, sharp, violent, pognant, bitter); 2. As a former of adjectives (kata keadaan), e.g.: /kədapətan/ (caught, arrested); /kətuluŋan/ (helped, assisted); /kəlalapan/ (frightened); (p.38) /kəraranan/ (influenced).

Reduplicatives

The process of reduplication involves the repetition of the base of a word. If the base or basic form is reduplicated without affecting its form, the reduplication is called 'pure'. If reduplication involves phonemic variation, it is called 'phonemic variation reduplication'. If reduplication is combined with affixation, it is called affix-extended reduplication. Apart from this, there are reduplicatives whose origin and meaning are unclear, and seem to be created just for the sake of forming a word. These are called pseudo-reduplicatives. In Nusa Penida dialect, reduplication is also found. Further anaysis follows below.

1. Pure reduplicatives

Pure reduplicatives involve repetition of the base without affecting the form of the base. E.g.: /gələŋ- gələŋ/ (very small), the base of which is /gələŋ/; /sənik-sənik/ (children) the base of which is /sənik/; /homah-homah/ (houses) the base of which is /homah/; /gonuŋ-gonuŋ/ (mountains) the base of which is /gonuŋ/; /bohəŋ-bohəŋ/ (noisy) the base of which is /bohəŋ/.

2. Phonemic variation reduplicatives

Phonetic variation reduplicatives involve repetition of the base or basic form with a phonemic variation. E.g.: /bodəŋ-badiŋ/ (to and fro) the base or basic form of which is /badiŋ/; /gəlar-gəlur/ (shout) the base of which is /gəlur/; /todaŋ-todiŋ/ (show) the base of which is /todiŋ/; /tolah-tolih/ (to look here and there) the base of which is /tolih/.

3. Affix-extended reduplicatives

Affix-extended reduplicatives involve repetition of the base or basic form with affixation. e.g.: /don-donan/ (leaves) the base or basic form of which is /don/; /sətəgəh-təgəh/ (as high or tall as possible) the base of which is /təgəh/; /sampi-sampian/ (toy cattle?) the base of which is /sampi/; /məholan-holanan/ (race, in a hurry) the base of which is /holan/.

4. Pseudo-reduplicatives

Pseudo-reduplicatives are reduplicatives whose origin and meaning are unclear, and seem to be created just for the sake of forming a word. (p.40). E.g.: /konaŋ-konaŋ/ (firefly); /galiŋ-galiŋ/ (name of a certain type of weed, grass); /kataŋ-kataŋ/ (a climbing plant, plaited basket carried on the back; /ləŋan-ləŋan/ (name of a fish); /tabi-tabi/ (name of a type of tool to catch fish).

The meanings supported by reduplicatives are:

1. Reduplicatives imply 'intensity', both regarding quantity and quality. a. Regarding quantity, e.g.: /sampi-sampi/ (many cows); /ñambu-ñambu/ (many rose-apples); /kəjat-kəjut/ (much movement, moving about); /don-donan/ (many kinds of leaves); /ramban-rambanan/ (all kinds of vegetables); b. Regarding quality, e.g.: /məwadih-wadihan/ (until one gets bored of it); /mətekil-tekilan/ (finished until the very last bit); /sətegəh-təgəhə/ (as high or tall as possible); /məbəcat-bəcatan/ (as soon as possible).

2. It weakens the meaning, in this respect it can be translated as 'rather'. Contoh: /lək-ləkan/ (rather ashamed); /lepeh-lepehan/ (rather tired); /borəŋ-borəŋan/ (rather angry); /mənik- mənikan/ (rather childish).

3. Expresses reciprocity or the concept of 'pay back' (work), e.g.: /mətimpug-timpugan/ (throw at each other); /mətəbək-təbəkan/ (stab each other); /mətolud-tuludan/ (push each other); /məcərəŋ-cərəŋan/ (look at each other, to exchange glances?).

4. The other meaning which may be derived from reduplicatives is 'resemble', e.g.: /siap-siapan/ (resemble a chicken); /sampi-sampian/ (resemble a cow); /jokuŋ-jokuŋan/ (resemble a jukung); /bal-balan/ (resemble a ball).

Compound words

Compound words involve the 'fusion' of two or more words that are so closely interconnected that they create an entirely new word. An example in Nusa Penida dialect is /jəhuk ləŋis/ (jeruk nipis/lime). The word /jəhuk/ and /ləŋis/ 'fuse' to a new word with an altogether new meaning. The meaning of each original word is sided and the new meaning put forward (M. Ramlan, 1967: 28-29). Furthermore, examine below examples: /ñuh pohuh/ (name of a type of coconut); /poh həjo/ (name of a type of mango); /selə həbun/ (sweet potato); /biyu kretuk/ (banana containing seeds); /siap cəmarə/ (chicken with feathers resembling a kasuarina tree needles or leaves); /oləd tekəh/ (name of a type of caterpillar).

Above data are examples of compound words, because the two words fuse into one new word containing an entirely new meaning. Take for instance /ñuh pohuh/. The word /ñuh/ (coconut) and /pohuh/ (quail) fuse as they are interconnected, and as a consequence each time /ñuh pohuh/ is pronounced, it refers to a 'certain type of coconut', and not to the individual parts of the word, i.e. 'coconut' and then 'quail. The same is valid for the word /poh həjo/, meaning a species of green mango where the meaning of each root word is suppressed. Besides, if one closely examines the above examples mentioned, it can be noticed that each of them consists of an originally free form. In this respect, it follows Bloomfield's explanations on the concept of compound words (Bloomfield, 1964:209). Observed from the nature of a compound word, it can be divided into two categories: endocentric and exocentric compounds.

1. Endocentric compound

A compoun is called endocentric if its distribution is equal to one or all of its parts. For example: the distribution of /ñuh pohuh/ is equal to its first part, i.e. /ñuh/. Evidence for this can be found in below sentences. a. //walə mulə ñuh popuh// (father plants a 'quail coconut'); // walə mulə ñuh - // (father plants a coconut). The position of /ñuh popuh/ is interchangable with /ñuh/. The distribution of the compound /selə həbun/ (sweet potato) is equal to both of its parts, as can be observed from below sentences: a. //sampitə ŋamah don selə həbun// (the cow eats the leaves of a sweet potato plant); b. //sampitə ŋamah don selə - // (the cow eats the leaves of an ubi plant); c. //sampitə ŋamah - həbun// (the cow eats - plants). The position of /selə həbun/ is interchangable with its first part /selə/ and the second one /həbun/. Below, some examples of endocentric compounds: /badəŋ kolot (pitch black); /barak ñoŋah/ (bright red); /poh həjo/ (name of a specific type of mango); /siap cəmara/ (name of a specific type of chicken); /gədaŋ renteŋ/ (name of a specfic type of papaya).

2. Exocentric compound

A compound is called exocentric, when its distribution is different from one or all of its parts. E.g.: /lowuh huwani/ (men and women?). Its distribution is not equal with the part /lohuh/ and the part /huwani/, for which evidence can be found in below sentences: a. //jahə iyə lohuh huwani// (where did they go, men and women?); b. //jahə iyə lohuh - //; c. //jahə iyə - huwani// [the meaning of these sentences is unclear, GD]. Below there are some examples of exocentric compounds: /kati wawal/ (a young jackfruit); /sandi kalə/ (almost night); /təŋahi təpət/ (noon); /nanaŋ meme/ (mother and father?).

Considering its structure. i.e. whether the relation between the parts is parallel or not, the compound can be divided into co-ordinative and attributive compounds.

1. Co-ordinative compound

A co-ordinative compound is a compound, the parts of which are parallel, in other words its parts take up the same position, i.e. the one part does not exemplify the other part. E.g.: /pəlih patut/. The first part /pəlih/ does not exemplify the second part /patut/, and vice versa, the second part /patut/ does not exemplify the first part /pəlih/. Some other examples: /jelek məlah/ (good and bad); /səbət kəndəl/ (happiness and sorrow); /səgər ogər/ (hale and healthy, safe and sound); /gəmuh landuh/ (safe and tranquil).

2. Attributive compound

An attributive compound is a compound of which one part exemplifies the other. In this respect, the second part exemplifies the first (according to the law of 'DM'; the part that is explained (D) followed by the explanatory part of adjective (M)?. The second exemplifying part can be an adjective or a noun. E.g.: /lipi gadaŋ/ (green snake) which consists of two parts, the first being /lipi/ (snake), a noun, and the second part /gadaŋ/ (green) an adjective. It is clear that /gadaŋ/ exemplifies /lipi/. Other examples: /gulə batu/ (lump sugar). In this example, the second part /batu/ exeplifies the first /gulə/, the only difference with above examples is that the second part in this exmple is a noun. Some examples of attributive compounds of which the second part is an adjective are: /gədaŋ renteŋ/ (name of a specific type of papaya); /təhiŋ gadiŋ/ (yellow bamboo); /yeh səmladə/ (lukewarm water); /alas wayah/ (jungle); /poh həjo/ (name of a specific type of mango). Examples of attributive compounds of which the second part is a noun: /gulə batu/ (lump sugar); /enan lemə/ (thumb); /galaŋ tanah/ (morning blindness?); /olad tekəh/ (name of a specific kind of caterpillar).

Besides, there is a type of compound usually called a 'compound with a unique constituent', i.e. a compound of which one of its parts constitutes a unique constituent. A unique constituent is the part, which can only be combined with a certain type of morpheme. Examples in Indonesian: 'simpang siur'. 'Siur' is a unique consituent as it can only be combined with the morpheme 'simpang' (M. Ramlan, 1967:35). In Nusa Penida dialect this type of compound is also found. Examine below exmaples: /pətəŋ kodot/ (pitch black); /potih bəlun/ (pure white); ñag ajur/ (destroyed into pieces); /bərag kagkag/ (thin as a rail); /barak ñoŋah/ (bright red); /tohuh gariŋ/ (dry as a bone).

The following parts /kodot/, /bəlun/, /ajur/, /kagkag/, /ñoŋah/ and /gariŋ/, are all unique constituent as they can only be combined with one morpheme, i.e.: /kodot/ can only be combined with the morpheme /pətəŋ/, /bəlun/ can only be combined with the morpheme /potih/, /ajur/ can only be combined with the morpheme /ñag/, /ñoŋah/ can only be combined with the morpheme /barak/ and /gariŋ/ can only be combined with the morpheme /tohuh/.

The meaning supported by this compound is to stress its original meaning (intensity). This occurs only in a compound with a unique constituent in the following combinations: adjective + unique constituent and unique constituent + adjective. Examples of adjective + unique constituent are: /pətəŋ kodot/ (pitch black); /pakəh dəkak/ (very salty); /purək latək/ (very filthy); /tuwə cakluk/ (decrepit, in ones dotage, dilapidated). Examples of a unique constituent + adjective: /ñoñur manis/ (very sweet), the only one example encoutered from gathered data.

Morphophonemic process in Nusa Penid dialect

A morphophonemic process indicates the changing of a phoneme caused by joining two or more morphemes. In Indonesian, for instance, this morphophonemic process occurs because of the changes of nasal phoneme /m/ in front of phoneme /p/, /b/; /n/ in front of phoneme /t/, /d/; /ñ/ in front of phoneme /c/, /j/, /s/ and /ŋ/ in front of phoneme /k/, /g/, /h/ and a vocal. Sometimes, the opposite occurs with respect to the structure or order of phonemes of a morpheme. An example is the forms of 'merah' and 'padma'. With these two forms or morphemes, if pronounced, the one follows the other, resulting in 'merah padam'. Sometimes a phoneme is added, for example /ñamə/ (brother, sister, cousin of same generation) which, after it is connected to the affix /edə/ (you), becomes /ñamandə/ (my brother, sister or cousin), and the adding occurs of the phoneme /n/ between /ñamə/ and /edə/. The opposite also occurs, i.e. the 'killing' of a phoneme, e.g. /patuh/, after it is connected to morpheme /ke+an/, it becomes /kəpatuan/, where phoneme /h/ is 'killed' (Samsuri, 1975:59-60).

Bearing in mind above, in Nusa Penida dialect only the morphophonemic process is encountered, which occurs after the addition of a phoneme, e.g.: /sampində/ (your cow); /memendə/ (your mother); /nasində/ (your nasi); /makondə/ (your tobacco); /ñambundə/ (your jambu). From these examples it can be observed that phoneme /n/ is added. To verify whether the addition of the phoneme /n/ in fact occured, the above constructions should be separated on the basis of their basic parts, resulting in: /sampi+edə/ (cow+you); /meme+edə/ (mother+you); /nasi+edə/ (nasi+you); /makə+edə/ (tobacco+you); /ñambu+edə/ (jambu+you).

The first part of each above construction is a free morpheme, all ending in a vocal phoneme. The second part is also a free morpheme, namely a singular second personal pronoun. In the possessive form, the second singular personal pronoun /ədə/ will take the shortened form of /də/ and is attached to the back of the word explained (Cf.: Gorys Keraf, 1973: 74). Likewise, the shortened form /də/ is attached to the part /sampi/, /məmə/, /nasi/, mako/ and /ñambu/ forming /sampində/, /memendə/, /nasində/, /makondə/ and /ñambundə/, where a phoneme /n/ is added. It is different when the first part of the construction ends in a consonant. Here, no changes occur, e.g.: /təhidə/ (your bamboo); /jaguŋdə/ (your corn); /oyahdə/ (your salt); /panoiŋdə/ (your fish hooks?).

II.4. Some differences and similarities in the realm of morphology of Nusa Penida dialect compared to standard Balinese (data on standard Balinese taken from: P.J. Kersten 'Tata Bahasa Bali', 1970:34-73). When touching upon the diferences and similarities between these two languages, some information needs to be presented on standard Balinese. Standard Balinese is the official variety used in schools, meetings, correspondence, radio, matters of customs (adat) and religion. This variety includes similarities in pronunciation, structure and meaning of words (Bagus ed., 1975: 46).

Similarities

The morphological similarities consists of affixes:

a. In standard Balinese, affix {mə-} is a know phenomenon, as is the case in Nusa Penida dialect, e.g.:

tables p.51

Nusa Penida Dialect Standard Balinese Indonesian English
/məkeseh/ /məkisih/ berbisik whisper
/məhojan/ /məujan/ berhujan rain
/mərsup/ /məsugi/ cuci muka wash one's face
/məhanak/ /məpanak/ beranak have children
 
b. In standard Balinese, affix {mə-} is a know phenomenon, both independently and bound to nasal prefix. This is also the case in Nusa Penida dialect, this prefix {pə-} is also found, e.g.:
 
Nusa Penida Dialect Standard Balinese Indonesian English
/pəbəhaŋ/ /pəbəaŋ/ pemberian gift
/pəselih/ /pəsilih/ pinjaman loan
/pəməlas/ /pəməlas/ guna-guna witchcraft
/pəŋaŋon/ /pəŋaŋon/ gembala shepherd

c. In standard Balinese suffix {-aŋ} is known as a verb former meaning 'to do something for someone else', and this is also the case for Nusa Penida dialect, e.g.:

tables p.52

Nusa Penida Dialect Standard Balinese Indonesian English
/jəmakaŋ/ /jəmakaŋ/ ambilkan fetch something for someone
/alihaŋ/ /alihaŋ/ carikan look for something for someone
/joŋkokaŋ/ /tegakaŋ/ dudukkan seat someone, marry off
/pesuaŋ/ /pesuaŋ/ keluarkan put out

d. In standard Balinese the suffix {-an} is found, indicating a 'comparative form'. Demikian pula dalam Dialek Nusa Penida, this is also the case for Nusa Penida dialect, e.g.:

Nusa Penida Dialect Standard Balinese Indonesian English
/babuanan/ /bəduuran/ lebih di atas higher up
/təgəhan/ /təgəhan/ lebih tinggi taller
/warasan/ /mokohan/ lebih gemuk fatter
/gələŋan/ /cənikan/ lebih kecil smaller

Differences

Morphological differences also include differences regarding affixes:

a. In standard Balinese suffix {-ñə} is a known phenomenon, but in Nusa Penida dialect this suffix is known as an allomorph from the suffix {-ə} and its funtion is to created passive forms. Allomorph /-ñə/ is encountered when the base or basic form, to which it is added, ends with vocal phoneme /n/ and a consonant phoneme, e.g.:

tables p.53 

Nusa Penida Dialect Standard Balinese Indonesian English
/dəpinñə/ /dəpinə/ dibiarkan let, permit, allow
/anoñə/ /anunə/ dipukul hit, beaten
/abañə/ /abanə/ dibawa taken away
/tondeə/ /tundenə/ disuruh ordered
/boruñə/ /burunə/ diburu hunted

b. In standard Balinese suffix /-cə/ is not found, but in Nusa Penida dialect it is in the form of an allomorph of suffix {-ə} where it forms passives. Allomorph /-cə/ is formed when the basic form which is added ends with phoneme /t/, e.g.:

Nusa Penida Dialect Standard Balinese Indonesian English
/cototcə/ /cototə/ dipatuk pecked, grabbed, managed to achieve
/habutcə/ /abutə/ dicabut yank out, withdraw
/aritcə/ /aritə/ disabit cut (of grass)
/catcə/ /cet ə/ dicet painted
/həbutcə/ /əbutə/ dikerumuni swarmed over, assembled

c. In standard Balinese suffix {-in} is found, and it forms passive verbs, but in Nusa Penida dialect it is encountered in the form of {-an}, e.g.:

table p.54 

Nusa Penida Dialect Standard Balinese Indonesian English
/oŋkaban/ /uŋkabin/ buka open
/ajahan/ /ajahin/ ajari teach
/kalahan/ /kalahin/ tinggalkan leave
/bəsahan/ /bəsahin/ cuci wash

Conclusion

In this chapter a number of conclusions will be brought forward in order to exemplify the forgoing clarifications: 1. Morphology is a branch of linguistics, which discusses (details of) words and the impact/influence or the changes of words or word forms in relation to their function and meaning; 2. Dialect is the characteristic language usage by a specific part of the population; 3. The dialect in Nusa Penida can be categorised as a dialect of the Bali Aga.

The various morphemes within Nusa Penida Dialect: In the Nusa Penida Dialect there are two types of morphemes: free and bound/attached. Those within the category of free morphemes are all the 'root words' (kata dasar), and those belonging to the category of bound morphemes all consist of affixes: prefix, suffix, confix and infix (in the Nusa Penida Dialect, however, there are no attached/bound morphemes in the form of infix). Apart from this, there are also morphemes in the form of 'repetitive words' (kata ulang) and compound words (kata majemuk). The morphophonemic process in Nusa Penida Dialect can vary with the additional phoneme /n/.

A number of morphological similarities and differences of the Nusa Penida Dialect compared with standard Balinese.

Similarities: a. In standard Balinese, there exists the prefix {mə-}, {pə-}. This is also the case with Nusa Penida Dialect, as this prefix is found in the form of {mə-}, {pə-}; b. In standard Balinese there exists the suffix {-an}, {-aŋ}. This is also valid for Nusa Penida Dialect where this suffix is encountered in the same form.

Differences: a. In standard Balinese exists the suffix {-ñə}, but in Nusa Penida Dialect this suffix is encountered as a passive former (pembentuk pasif); b. In standard Balinese the suffix {-cə} does not exist, but in Nusa Penida Dialect it does; c. In standard Balinese exists the suffix {-in} as a passive verb 'former', whereas in Nusa Penida Dialect this suffix is encountered as {-an}.

Bibliography (Darma Laksana)

  • Bagus, I Gusti Ngurah: Masalah Pembakuan Bahasa Bali, Balai Penelitian Bahsa Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan, Singaraja, 1975
  • Bloomfield, Leonard - Language, Henry Holt and Company, New York, 1964
  • Halim, Amran - Fungsi Politik Bahasa Nasional, kertas kerja pada Praseminar Politik Bahasa Nasional, in: Majalah Budaya Jaya, Penerbit Dewan Kesenian Jakarta, Maret, no.82, 1975
  • Jendra, Wayan - Sebuah ikhtisar Fonologi Bahasa Bali, diterbitkan oleh Jurusan Sastra Jawa Kuna Fakultas Sastra Universitas Udayana Denpasar, 1976
  • Jendra, Wayan; Wayan Bawa dkk. - Sebuah Deskripsi tentang Latar Belakang Social Budaya Bahasa Bali, Proyek Penelitian Bahsas dan Sastra Indonesia dan Daerah, Pusat Pembinaan dan Pengembangan Bahsas, Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan, Denpasar, 1976
  • Keraf, Garys - Tata Bahasa Indonesia, cetakan II, Penerbit Nusa Indah, Percetakan Arnoldus Ende - Flores, 1973
  • Kamil, T.W. - Beberapa morfim yang produktif dalam bahasa Indonesia, Majalah Bahasa dan Budaya no.1/2, 1961
  • Kersten, P.J. - Tata Bahasa Bali, Nusa Indah Flores, 1970
  • Nida, E.A. - Morphology, The Descriptive Analysis of Words, Second Edition, Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press, 1962
  • Ramlan, M. - Ilmu Bahasa Indonesia, Morfologi, U.P. Indonesia, Yogya, 1967
  • Samsuri - Bahasa dan Ilmu Bahasa, Ikhtisar Analisis Bahasa Pengantar Kepada Linguistik, Jilid I, Lembaga Penerbitan IKIP - Malang, 1971
  • Samsuri - Pengantar Morfo-Sintaksis, Edisi Penataran, 1975

Appendix II: 200 word list swadesh: forthcoming

Appendix III: /rəraosan naŋ asri ajak naŋ rəmi unduk gumi arig/; Reraosan Nang Asri ajak Nang Remi unduk gumi arig; Percakapan Pak Asri dan Pak Remi tentang musim paceklik; Conversation between Pak Asri and Pak Remi on the Paceklik Season: forthcoming

Bahasa Bali Nusa Penida Balinese Indonesian English
/naŋ asri: həŋken naŋ remi, kolə əndək ŋelah kənəh babarə jani. to, pulan-pulanətə: jaguŋ, selə, kacaŋ dadi əndək ñak mupu carə sobə-sobətə. ŋasan ŋewəhan duaŋ jani eduptə. Nang Asri: Hengken nang Remi, kola endek ngelah keneh babara jani. To, pulan-pulaneta: jagung, sela, kacang dadi endek nyak mupu cara soba-sobeta. Ngasan ngewehang duang jani edupta. Pak Asri: Bagaimana pak Reni, saya kok tidak mengerti sekarang. Itu, tanam-tanamannya: jagung, ketela, kacang tidak ada hasilnya seperti yang sudah-sudah. Memang bertambah sukar hidup kita sekarang.  How are you, Pak Remi? I don't understand. Those crops: corn, ketela and beans do not produce a harvest as before. Our lives are really more difficult nowadays.
naŋ rami: həŋken abət, bəs əndək adə ojane. ñak, əndək mati pula-pulanətə, ebə sobə jehə məgae duaŋ. Nang Remi: Hengkenan abet, bas endek ada ojane. Nyak endek matinya pulan-pulaneta. Eda soba jeha megae duang. Pak Remi: Apa boleh buat, karena hujan sangat kurang. Oleh karenanya, tanam-tanaman mati kekurangan air. Yang penting kita kan sudah bekerja. Pak Remi: What is to be done? Rain does not fall often. And because of this, the crops die because of a shortage of water. The important thing is we keep on working, right?
naŋ asri: əndañə həntə, apə amah. trə awak mati mətahiŋ jani. sajə jehə awak ŋəlah puñan ñuh, kapah-kapahə ŋalap buahə, bəs kene ajiñə modah. bəblanjantə seŋ maələne. masih əndək gənəp adəne banñə. Nang Asri: Endanya henta, apa amah. Tre awak mati metahing jani. Saja jeha awak ngelah punyan nyuh, kapah-kapahene ngalap buaha, bes kene ajinya modah. Beblanjante aeng maelene. Masih endek genep adene bannya. Pak Asri: Kalau demikian, apa yang dimakan. Matilah kita karena tidak makan-makan. Walaupun kita punya pohon kelapa, sekali-sekali kita petik buahnya, tetapi harganya sangat murah. Sedangkan barang-barang keperluan sehari-hari sangat mahal. Juga tidak mencukupi. Pak Asri: if so, what are we to eat? We would die without food. Although we have coconut trees and occasionally pick coconuts, the prices we get for them are very low, whereas the cost of living is so high. That won't do either.
naŋ remi: əndək həntə adəne, lan məlarat kə sumatrə sanñə bandiŋan dini awak, ŋəlah ñuhtə əndək akodətə masih paliŋ banñə. Nang Remi: Endek hente adene, lan melarat ke Sumatra sannya. Bandingan dini awak, ngelah nyuhta endek akodeta masih paling bannya. Pak Remi: Tidak aja jalan lain, lebih baik transmigrasi ke Sumatra saja. Bandingkan di sini kita hidup serba kekurangan saja. Pak Remi: There is no other way, it would be better to transmigrate to Sumatra, better certainly than these poor conditions.
naŋ asri: edə lakar məlarat kə sumatrə? kolə əndək cumpu adəne. edə əndək nəpuk timpal-timpul danə he məlipatətə. ŋalih apə edə kəmo bin. adelə kə sulawəsi sanñə kaneŋ sumatrə. Nang Asri: Eda lakar melarat ke Sumatra? Kola endek cumpu adene. Eda endek nepuk timpal-timpadane he melipeteta. Ngalih apa eda keno bin. Adela ke Sulawesi sannya kaneng Sumatra. Pak Asri: Engkau akan transmigrasi ke Sumatra? Saya tidak setuju kalau demikian. Engkau tidak melihat kawan-kawanmu banyak yang kembali. Mencari apa lagi ke sana. Lebih baik ke Sulawesi dibandingkan ke Sumatra. Pak Asri: You are going to transmigrate to Sumatra? I don't agree. Don't you see how many friends are coming back? What are you looking for out there? Compared to Sumatra, Sulawesi for sure is the better option.
naŋ remi: əndañə kə sulawəsi, bəkələne masih həntə. he ŋoñaŋ. Nang Remi: Endanya ke Sulawesi, bekelene masih hente. He ngonyang. Pak Remi: Kalau ke Sulawesi, biayanya kan banyak juga. Banyak menghabiskan bekal. Pak Remi: Going to Sulawesi costs a lot of money. Many reserves would be finished.
naŋ asri: ŋodə həntə, anak pəmərentah naŋguŋe. sobə kəd kəmone jehə ebənu haŋə jaminan. Nang Asri: Ngoda hente, anak pemerentah nanggunge. Soba ked kemone jeha eba nu hange jaminan. Pak Asri: Mengapa demikian, pemerintah yang membiayai kita. Sesampainya di sanapun kita masih diberikan jaminan oleh pemerintah. Pak Asri: Why? Well, the government would pay, wouldn't they? Once we arrive there, the government would still guarantee certain costs.
naŋ remi: leh! lamun həntə gel awak. bin pedan to, takonan malu apaŋ məkən. malah awak gel, əncotcə əndək adə apə. lesat awak. Nang Remi: Leh! Lamun hente gel awak. Bin pedan to, takonan malu apang seken. Malah awak gel, encotoa endek ada apa. Lenat awak! Pak Remi: Oh! Kalau demikian senanglah kita. Kapan berangkatnya, tanyakan dahulu supaya jelas. Supaya jangan kita terlalu senang, tahu-tahu tidak ada apa-apa. Malu kita! Pak Remi: Oh, if that is the case then we are happy! When are you leaving? You'd better ask beforehand, just to make sure. So as we don't get worked up for nothing, you never know. It would be an embarrassment.
naŋ asri: ne, kayaŋ sohud galuŋəne lakar ñalan. prəbəkəltə həntə/. Nang Asri: Ne, kayang sohud Galungane lakar nyalan. Prebekelte hente. Pak Asri: Habis Galungan ini akan berangkat, Pak Perbekel yang membilangnya. Pak Asri: After Galungan we will leave, says the perbekel (village head).

List of informants

  • 1. Gurun Kardi, 42 yoa, man, farmer, at Banjar Tanahbias
  • 2. Men Kardi, 37 yoa, woman, farmer, at Banjar Tanahbias
  • 3. I Nyoman Paing, 25 yoa, man, education SD, farmer, at Banjar Biaung
  • 4. Namg Mara, 60 yoa, man, farmer, at Banjar Adegan
  • 5. Wayan Rai, 28 yoa, man, education SD, farmer, at Banjar Adegan
  • 6. Wayan Moreg, 29 yoa, man, education SD, farmer, at Banjar Bodong
  • 7. Nang Kasni, 50 yoa, man, farmer, at Banjar Bodong
  • 8. Nang Sendem, 55 yoa, man, salesman, at Banjar Sental
  • 9. Made Mergig, 32 yoa, man, education SD, salesman, at Banjar Sental
  • 10. Nang Kesir, 50 yoa, man, farmer, at Br. Pendem
  • 11. Made Tari, 30 yoa, woman, salesman, at Perapat
  • 12. Nang Gama, 30 yoa, man, fisherman, at Banjar Nyuh
  • 13. Men Putri, 50 yoa, woman, farmer, at Banjar Sental
  • 14. I Gede Lingga, 28 yoa, man, education SPG, SD teacher, at Banjar Serangen
  • 15. I Wayan Jambul, 27 yoa, man, education SPG, SD teacher, at Banjar Serangen
  • 16. Ni Wayan Narwi, 25yoa, woman, farmer, at Banjar Bodong

References (Godi Dijkman)

http://ms.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hukum_D-M

Source

  • Darma Laksana, I Ketut, Professor - Morfologi Bahasa Bali Dialek Nusa Penida, Udayana University thesis, Denpasar-Bali, 1977, 71pp

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