Bali starling food (Ginantra, 2009)

The article below is called 'Plant species as food source for the Bali starling at Ped, Nusa Penida' and was written by I Ketut Ginantra, A. A. G. Raka Dalem, Sang Ketut Sudirga (Kelompok Studi Ekowisata, Jurusan Biologi, FMIPA, Universitas Udayana, Kampus Unud Bukit Jimbaran Bali, Indonesia 80361), & I. G. N. Bayu Wirayudha (Ketua Yayasan "Friends of The National Park Foundation", This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it., +628123992656). Translation of the original Indonesian text by Godi Dijkman follows below.

Abstract

A study on plants species as resource of food for the Bali Starling (Leucopsar rothschildi Stresemann, 1912) was carried out in Ped Village, Nusa Penida, Klungkung Bali, Indonesia between March-April and August-September, 2006. Exploration methods were conducted in making an inventory of plants species and plant parts as food resource. Direct observations were conducted to observe feeding activity of the starling after release. Results of this study show that 105 plants species have been identified in Ped village. About 30 species (in varied habitus of trees, shrubs, and herbs) acted as food resources for the starling. Part of plants species used as food resources were fruits and seeds. Besides plants as food sources, insects were also available on the research site (i.e. grasshoppers, ants, caterpillars & butterflies). In addition there were small reptiles as food source for the bird. Plants availability as food source supports the ex-situ conservations of Bali Starling in the village of Ped. Key word: plants species, insect, Bali Starling, food resource.

Introduction

The Bali Starling/Myna(h) is an endemic bird species which is becoming ever more rare. Recently, the life of the starling has known many challenges amongst which habitat degradation and illicit hunting. As a result, the population has decreased dramatically.

Efforts for the conservation of the Bali Starling have been met with national and international attention. In Indonesia, the Bali Starling has been protected since 1931 by constitutional law on the conservation of wildlife 1931, and constitutional law nr.5, 1990 regarding the conservation of natural resources and ecosystem. The Bali Starling has been evaluated as critically endangered in the IUCN Red List, and has been included in CITES Appendix I. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bali_Myna)

In view of the fact that the Bali Myna is critically endangered, the following concrete steps have been taken by the Indonesian government: establishment of a conservation area & breeding centre for the Bali Starling. Additionally, attention from various foreign NGOs such as Bird Life International, American of Zoological Park and Aquaria (AAZPA,USA) & Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust (JWPT, UK) have also contributed towards safeguarding the Bali Myna since 1983.

One of the Bali-based foundations, which have contributed to the preservation of the Bali Starling is the Friends of the National Parks Foundation, the centre of which is located at the village of Ped, Nusa Penida, Klungkung. This foundation opted for Nusa Penida as the centre for the birds' breeding and release facilities because this island hosts various forested areas, natural shrubs & tegalan able to support the Bali Mynah, as well as the fact that the island population's adat system regulates the protection of this bird by prohibiting hunting of the birds, e.g. the Sulphur-crested cockatoo (Cacatua sulphurea parvula; Kakatua jambul kuning) and the Black-winged starling (Sturnus melanopterus; Jalak Nusa). To safeguard the success of the Bali Starling's new habitat, habitat conditions have to be optimal with regards to availability of food, shelter, places to reproduce and availability of nesting places etc. This underlines the importance of this research on the availability of food for the Bali Mynah in its Nusa Penida habitat.

Research method

This research was done in the village of Ped, Nusa Penida, in March-April & August-September 2006. An examining method was used as one way to write an inventory of plant species and parts thereof as food sources. Plant identification was done according to Backer (1973) & Dasuki (1993) references. Observations to assess feeding behaviour of the Bali Mynah were made after its release into the wild.

Result and discussion

Ped area consists of coconut, yam, corn and bean plantations/fields, and shrubs are also found dominated by Goatweed (Ageratum conyzoides; Bandotan sp.) and Lantana (Lantana camara; Kerasi) and various weeds. The area is inhabited.

Analysis of the vegetation around the village of Ped brings to light 105 tree species, shrubs and herbs. The dominating tree species are Coconut trees, gamal, santen, bamboo and banana trees. The shrubs are dominated by Lantana (Kerasi) and Goatweed (Bandotan). The dominant herbs are Savanna grass (Axonopus compresus), Desmodium trifolium, Hoplismenus sp. [ants?] & Themeda arguens (grass sp.)

From the 105 plants found in this area, approximately 30 serve as food for the Bali Starling, in the form of fruit or seeds. These can be summarised as follows: Zizygium cumini (Jambul; Juwet); Psidium sp. (Common guava; Klampuak); Banana (Musa paradisiaca; Pisang), Indian plum (Zizipus mauritiana; Bekul), Indian mulberry (Morinda citrifolia; Mengkudu); Ficus sp. (Ficus glabella, Bunut), Sugar-apple (Annona squamosa; Silik), Cashew (Anacardium ocidentale; Mete), Papaya (Carica papaya; Papaya), Singapore cherry (Muntingia calabura; Singapore cherry), Ficus sp. (Ficus rumphii; Ancak), Indian lilac (Azadirahcta indica, Intaran), Weeping fig (Ficus benjamina; Beringin), Guava (Psidium aquatica; Jambu air), Devil's trumpet (Datura metel; Kecubung), Lantana (Lantana camara; Kerasi), Phyllanthus sp. (Phyllanthus nidus; Ceremai), Batoko plum (Flacourtia indica; Kem), and various other species of herbs such as Grass sp. (Themeda arguens), Perennial grass sp. (Oplismenus), Carpetgrass (Axonopus sp), Papyrus (Cyperus sp.), Grass sp. (Panicum eruciforme), Love grass (Eragrostis sp.), Spikesedge (Kylinga monocepala), Indian goosegrass (Eleusine indica), Fountaingrass (Pennisetum sp.) & Windmill grass (Chloris barbata).

Apart from direct food sources in the form of fruit or seeds, various plant species also provide insects such as grasshoppers, ants, caterpillars and butterflies, or small reptiles, which make up food for the Bali Starling (table 1). During observations, six birds were seen to be feeding, two birds were witnessed eating in the grasses in the vicinity of one of FNPF's cages at Ped whist eating insects and weeds, two other birds perched on a Guava (Jambu) and Papaya tree whilst pecking at guava and papaya fruit.

According to Frans Manansang et al. (2007), from Taman Safari Indonesia (TSI) & Fukuko Takahashi (2007) from Gunma Safari Park (GSP) Jepan, in http://www.balipost.co.id/balipostcetak/2007/1/19/ b13.htm), the Indian lilac (Azadirahcta indica; Intaran) is one of the favourite food sources of the Bali Myna. In the wild, food sources vary considerably, such as fruit/seeds. insects (like caterpillars, ants, dragonflies, grasshoppers, flies and termites), worms and small reptiles (Arlene, in http://www.thewildones.org/Animals/ balistar.html). In its natural habitat, the Bali West National Park (TNBB), the following fruits are the bird's favourite food: Lantana (Lantana camara; Kerasi), Weeping fig (Ficus benjamina; Beringin), Papaya (Carica papaya; Papaya), Sawo kacik (Malikara kauki; Sawo kecik), Indian plum (Ziziphus mauritania; Bidara) and others (Pujiati, 1987; in Sukarmini, 1999). In the village of Ped, these plant species are already present and constitute a source of food to be preserved for the ex-situ conservation of the Bali Starling.

Table 1. Plant species and their importance as sources of food, insects and roosting places for the Bali Starling [and other birds] in the area of Ped, Nusa Penida (the names of below plants have been rearranged alphabetically according to Latin names; additional remarks in square brackets by Godi Dijkman, as well as a number of missing scientific names).

Latin English Local name Use for birds Potensi untuk pemanfaatan oleh burung
Acacia / Vachellia leucophloea White-bark Acacia Acasia duri; pohon pilang source of insects tempat mencari serangga
Achyrantes aspera Devil's horsewip Jarong    
Ageratum conyzoides Goat weed, Chick weed Bandotan   tempat mencari serangga
Alocasia sp. Alocasia Talas    
Alyxia sp. Alyxia Pala jiwa    
Amorphophallus sp. [?] Amorphophallus [?] Tiih    
Anacardium ocidentale Cashew Mete/jambu fruit serves as food, roosting, source of insects buah sebagai makanan burung, tempat bertengger, mencari serangga
Annona squamosa Sugar-apple Silik fruit serves as food, roosting, source of insects buah sebagai makanan burung, tempat bertengger, mencari serangga
Asteraceae (Spx1) Aster Aster herb, source of insects herba, tempat burung mencari serangga
Axonopus compresus Grass sp. Rumput pait herb, seeds serve as food, source of insects herba, biji dimakan burung tempat burung mencari serangga
Azadirachta indica Neem, Nim, Indian lilac Nusa Penida: Angih; Balinese: Intaran; Indonesian: Mimba roosting, nesting, source of insects, fruit serves as food tempat bertengger, bersarang, mencari serangga; buah sumber pakan burung, tempat bertengger
Bambusa sp Bamboo Bambu source of insects tempat mencari serangga
Boerhavia diffusa Red spiderling, Spreading hogweed ? herb, source of insects herba, tempat burung mencari serangga
Bougainvillea spectabilis Great Bougainvillea Kembang kertas    
Breynia oblongifolia Coffee brush Poong fruit serves as food, source of insects buah makanan burung, mencari serangga
Caesalpinia pulcherrima Peacock flower Merak    
Calotropis gigantean Crown flower Biduri, Widuri source of insects tempat mencari serangga
Carica papaya Papaya Pepaya fruit serves as food, source of insects buah sebagai makanan burung, mencari serangga
Cassia fistula Golden shower tree Trengguli roosting, source of insects tempat bertengger, mencari serangga
Cassia / Senna suratensis Senna Bunga kuning roosting, source of insects tempat bertengger, mencari serangga
Casuarina sp Cassowary tree Cemara kipas source of insects tempat mencari serangga
Chloris barbata Swollen windmill grass Rumput goyang herb, seeds serve as food, source of insects herba, biji dimakan burung, tempat burung mencari serangga
Cocos nucifera Coconut Kelapa roosting, source of insects tempat bertengger, bersarang, mencari serangga
Crotalaria sp. Rattlepod Orok-orok herb, source of insects herba, tempat burung mencari serangga
Curcuma sp. Tumeric Gamongan    
Cycas rumphii Queen sago palm Pakis haji    
Cyperus haspan Dwarf papyrus Teki herb, seeds serve as food, source of insects herba, biji dimakan burung tempat burung mencari serangga
Dalbergia latifolia / Amerimnon latifolium Blackwood Sonokeling roosting, source of insects tempat bertengger, mencari serangga
Datura metel Devil's trumpet Kecubung fruit serves as food, source of insects buah makanan burung, tempat mencari serangga
Desmodium trifolium Tick clover etc. ? herb, source of insects herba, tempat burung mencari serangga
Dioscorea sp. Yam Ubi    
Dipterocarpus sp. Dipterocarpus Pregiding tree, shelter, nesting pohon, tempat berlindung, bersarang
Eleusine indica Indian goosegrass Rumput belulang herb, seeds serve as food, source of insects herba, biji dimakan burung, tempat burung mencari serangga
Eragrostis sp. Lovegrass Rumput herb, seeds serve as food, source of insects herba, biji dimakan burung tempat burung mencari serangga
Erythrina sp. Flame tree, Coral tree Dadap, Delundung tree, source of insects flower serves as food, especially for Sunbirds pohon, tempat mencari serangga; bunga sebagai makanan burung, terutama burung-madu
Euphorbia [mali?] Spurge Blatung    
Euphorbia pulcherrima Poinsettia Kembang racun    
Ficus benjamina Wheeping fig Beringin fruit serves as food, roosting, nesting, source of insects buah sebagai makanan burung, sebagai tempat bertengger, bersarang, mencari serangga
Ficus glabella / Ficus virens Aiton White fig Bunut ripe fruit serves as food, roosting, nesting, source of insects buah matang sebagai makanan burung, pohon untuk bertengger, bersarang, mencari serangga
Ficus rumphii Fig sp. Ancak fruit serves as food, roosting, source of insects buah sebagai makanan burung, tempat bertengger, mencari serangga
Ficus septica Fig sp. Awar-awar fruit serves as food, source of insects buah sebagai makanan burung, tempat mencari serangga
         
Flacourtia indica Batoko plum Kem fruit serves as food buah sebagai pakan burung
Gardenia sp. Gardenia Jempiring    
Gliricidia sepium Gliricidia Gamal roosting, source of insects tempat bertengger, mencari serangga
Gmelina arborea Beechwood, White teak Gamelina roosting, source of insects tempat bertengger, mencari serangga
Hibiscus sinensis Chinese hibiscus Waru roosting, source of insects tempat bertengger, mencari serangga
Hoplismenus sp. [?] Ant sp. [?] Rumput herb, seeds serve as food, source of insects herba, biji dimakan burung tempat burung mencari serangga
Jathropa curcas Jatropha Jarak source of insects tempat mencari serangga
Kyllinga monocephala Spikesedge sp. Teki herb, seeds serve as food, source of insects herba, biji dimakan burung tempat burung mencari serangga
Lannea grandis Lannea sp. Santen roosting, source of insects tempat bertengger, mencari serangga
Lantana camara Lantana Kerasi fruit serves as food buah sebagai makanan burung
Leea angulata Leea sp. Gegirang source of insects tempat mencari serangga
Leea indica Bandicoot berry Gegirang    
Leucaena leucocephala White leadtree Lamtoro roosting, source of insects tempat bertengger, mencari serangga
Mamordica charantia Bitter lemon Pare liana, source of insects Liana, tempat mencari serangga
Mangifera indica Mango Mangga roosting, source of insects tempat bertengger, mencari serangga
Manihot utilissima Cassava sp. Ketela pohon shrub, source of insects semak, tempat mencari serangga
Morinda citrifolia Indian mulberry Mengkudu fruit serves as food, roosting, source of insects buah sebagai makanan burung,tempat bertengger, mencari serangga
Moringa oleifera Moringa, Drumstick tree Kelor roosting, source of insects tempat bertengger, mencari serangga
Muntingia calabura Singapore cherry Sengepur fruit serves as food, roosting, source of insects buah sebagai makanan burung, tempat bertengger, mencari serangga
Musa paradisiaca Banana Pisang fruit serves as food buah sebagai makanan burung
Panicum eruciforme / Moorochloa eruciformis? Panicum [grass] sp. Rumput herb, seeds serve as food, source of insects herba, biji dimakan burung tempat burung mencari serangga
Pennisetum sp. Fountaingrass, Elephant grass? Padang gajah herb, seeds serve as food, source of insects herba, biji dimakan burung, tempat burung mencari serangga
Phyllanthus nidus / acidus? Malay gooseberry Ceremae tree, fruit serves as food, roosting Pohon, Buah makanan burung, tempat bertengger
Pisonia alba   Dagdag roosting, source of insects tempat bertengger, mencari serangga
Pithecellobium sp. Blackbeed Ingan-ingan    
Pleomele angustifolia Dracaena sp. Don suji    
Plumeria acuminata Frangipani Jepun roosting, source of insects tempat bertengger, mencari serangga
Polyalthia longifolia Asopalav tree Glodogan roosting, source of insects tempat bertengger, mencari serangga
Portulaca sp. Purslane, Moss rose Maman celeng    
Psidium aquatica / guajava / sp. Guava; Common guava Jambu air; Sotong, Jambu; Klampuak fruit serves as food, roosting, source of insects buah makanan burung, tempat bertengger, mencari serangga
Punica granatum Pomgranate Delima shrub, source of insects semak, tempat mencari serangga
Rhicinus communis Caster oil plant Jarak    
Saccarum officinarum Sugar cane Tebu    
Sida sp. Fanpetal, Sida Sidaguri herb, source of insects herba, tempat burung mencari serangga
Solanum sp. Solanum Tekokak    
Sterculia foetida Bastard poon tree, Java olive tree Kapuk tree, roosting, source of insects pohon, tempat bertengger, mencari serangga
Tamarindus indica Tamarind Asem roosting, source of insects tempat bertengger, mencari serangga
Tectona grandis Teak Jati roosting, source of insects tempat bertengger, mencari serangga
Themeda arguens Themeda, grass sp. Rumput herb, seeds serve as food, source of insects herba, biji dimakan burung tempat burung mencari serangga
Terminalia cattapa Bengal almond, Indian almond Ketapang roosting, source of insects tempat bertengger, mencari serangga
Tridax procumbens Daisy (family) Tepu-tepu herb, source of insects herba, tempat burung mencari serangga
Unknown Unknown Book fruits serves as food buah sebagai makanan burung
Urena sp. Urena Pulet    
Vernonia sp. Ironweed Bengu-bengu herb, source of insects herba, tempat burung mencari serangga
Zea mays Corn Jagung source of insects, [corncob serves as food, e.g. Cacatua sulphurea parvula, Sulphur-crested cockatoo] Tempat mencari serangga, [buah sebagai makanan burung, misalnya Kakatua jambul kuning]
Zizipus mauritiana Indian plum Bekul fruit serves as food, roosting, source of insects buah sebagai makanan burung,tempat bertengger, mencari serangga
Zizygium cumini Jambul Juwet fruit serves as food, roosting, source of insects buah sebagai makanan burung, tempat bertengger, mencari serangga

Conclusion & suggestions

Conclusion: in the village of Ped, 105 plant types have been identified, amongst which trees, shrubs and herbs. Of these 105, 30 are in some way useful for the Bali starling as they provide food in the form of fruit or seeds. These include: Jambul (Zysigium cumini; Juwet), Indina lilac (Azadirachta indica; Intaran), Wheeping fig (Ficus benjamina; Beringin), shrubs such as Lantana (Lantana camara; Kerasi), Batako plum (Flacourtia indica; Kem), and herbs/grasses such as Themeda arguens, Panicum eruciforme (grass), Lovegrass (Eragrostis sp.; rumput), Spikesedge sp. (Kyllinga monocephala; Teki), Indian goosegrass (Eleusine indica; Rumput belulang) and Swollen windmill grass (Chloris barbata; Rumput goyang).

Apart from being a direct food source (fruit and seeds), these plants also provide a source of insects, such as grasshoppers, ants, caterpillars, butterflies, small reptiles, all food for the Bali Mynah.

This vegetation, which provides food for the birds in Ped area, supports ex-situ conservation of the Bali Starling.

Suggestion: in view of Bali Starling conservation efforts in Nusa Penida, all parties involved are hoped to contribute towards the preservation of mentioned plant species as they provide food for the Bali Starling.

Acknowledgements

The writers wish to express their gratitude to the Begawan Giri Foundation for providing funds for this research, and to the FNPF volunteers for their support during field research.

References (Ginantra)

  • Arlene. Rothschild
  • Backer, C.A. 1973. Atlas of 220 Weeds of Sugar-Cane Fields in Java. Indonesian Sugar Experiment Station. Pasuruan.
  • Dalem, A.A.G.R., I. .K Ginantra, S. K. Sudirga dan I.G.N. Bayu Wirayuda, 2006. Daya Dukung Kawasan Kecamatan Nusa Penida terhadap Kehidupan Jalak Bali (Leucopsar rothschildi Stresemann 1912). Nusa Penida, FNPF.
  • Dasuki, U. 1993. Sistematik Tumbuhan Tinggi. PAU Ilmu Hayati. ITB
  • Gunma Safari Park (GSP) dan Taman Safari Indonesia (TSI), 2007. TSI dan GSP Jepang Gelar Penghijauan di TNBB, dikutip 21 Januari 2007 dari: http://www.balipost.co.id/balipostcetak/2007/1/19/b13.htm
  • Sukarmini, N. W. A. 1999. Studi Tentang Penangkaran Jalak Bali (Leucopsar rotchschildi Stresemann) di Taman Nasional Bali Barat serta Usaha-Usaha untuk Meningkatkan Produktivitasnya. TA. STKIP tidak dipublikasikan.
  • Wikipedia Indonesia, Jalak Bali. 2007. Dikutip 21 Januari 2007 dari: http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/jalak_bali

References (Godi Dijkman)

Source

  • Ginantra, I Ketut et al - Jenis-jenis tumbuhan sebagai sumber pakan Jalak Bali (Leucopsar rothschildi S.) di desa Ped, Nusa Penida, Klungkung, Bali, in: "Jurnal Bumi Lestari", Volume 9, No. 1, February 2009, p.97-102

* Original Indonesian text*

1. Pendahuluan

Jalak Bali (Leucopsar rothschildi) merupakan satwa endemik yang semakin langka. Pada akhir-akhir ini kehidupannya banyak mengalami gangguan, diantaranya adanya perusakan habitat dan perburuan liar sehingga populasinya terus menurun.

Upaya pelestarian Jalak Bali telah mendapat perhatian baik taraf nasional maupun internasional. Di Indonesia Jalak Bali ditetapkan sebagai satwa yang dilindungi sejak tahun 1931 dalam Undang-Undang Perlindungan Binatang Liar 1931, dan Undang-Undang no 5 th 1990 tentang konservasi sumber daya alam hayati dan ekosistemnya. Jalak Bali dievaluasikan sebagai kritis di dalam IUCN Red List serta didaftarkan dalam CITES Appendix I. (http:/ /id.wikipedia.org/wiki/jalak_bali)

Mengingat terancamnya Jalak Bali ini, tindakan nyata yang dilakukan oleh pemerintah Indonesia antara lain: penetapan kawasan konservasi, mendirikan pusat pembibitan dan penankaran Jalak Bali. Disamping itu perhatian dari berbagai organisasi non-pemerintah di luar negeri seperti Bird Life International, American of Zoological Park and Aquaria (AAZPA,USA) dan Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust (JWPT, Inggris) telah turut serta dalam penyelamatan jalak Bali sejak tahun 1983.

Salah satu yayasan di Bali yang ikut serta dalam pelestarian Jalak Bali secara ex situ adalah "Friends Of The National Park Foundation" yang pusat kegiatannya di Desa Ped Nusa Penida Klungkung. Yayasan memilih kawasan Nusa Penida sebagai pusat pembibitan, penangkaran dan melepasliarkan Jalak Bali, mengingat kawasan ini masih memiliki beberapa kawasan hutan, semak-semak liar, tegalan yang mendukung kehidupan Jalak Bali, serta dukungan dari masyarakat adat tentang perlindungan burung terbukti sudah diterapkannya denda bagi penduduk yang menangkap burung, misalnya burung kakak tua jambul kuning (Cactaua sulpurpurea ) dan jalak nusa (Sturnus melanopterus). Untuk kesuksesan kehidupan jalak bali di habitat yang baru, maka kondisi habitat harus mendukung, baik ketersediaan pakan, tempak berlindung, reproduksi/bersarang, dan aktivitas lainnya. Mengingat hal ini maka penelitian mengenai ketersediaan pakan bagi jalak bali di habitat Ped Nusa Penida penting dilakukan.

2. Metode Penelitian

Penelitian ini dilaksanakan di Desa Ped, Nusa Penida pada bulan Maret dan April 2006 dan pada musim bulan Agustus dan September 2006.). Metode yang digunakan adalah metode jelajah untuk inventarisasi tumbuhan dan bagian tumbuhan untuk sumber pakan. Identifikasi tumbuhan menggunakan acuan Backer (1973) dan Dasuki (1993). Pengamatan langsung dilakukan untuk melihat Aktivitas makan jalak Bali pasca pelepasan.

3. Hasil dan Pembahasan

Kawasan Ped merupakan lahan perkebunan kelapa, kebun ketela, jagung dan kacang-kacangan, juga terdapat lahan semak yang didominasi oleh jenis bandotan (Ageratum conyzoides) dan kerasi (Lantana camara), lahan rumput dan juga merupakan area pemukiman penduduk.

Hasil analisis vegetasi di kawasan Ped ditemukan sekitar 105 jenis tumbuhan dari strata pohon, semak, dan herba. Untuk pohon jenis tumbuhan yang mendominasi adalah kelapa, gamal, santen, bambu, pisang. Vegetasi semak didominasi oleh kerasi dan bandotan. Vegetasi herba didominasi oleh Axonopus compresus, Desmodium trifolium, Hoplismenus sp. dan Temeda arguens.

Dari 105 jenis tumbuhan yang ditemukan dikawasan ini, sekitar 30 jenis merupakan sumber pakan bagi jalak bali, baik berupa buah atau biji. Jenis- jenis tumbuhan tersebut adalah: juwet (Zizygium cumini), klampuak (Psidium sp.), pisang (Musa paradisiaca), bekul (Zizipus mauritiana), jambu biji (Psidium guajava), mengkudu (Murinda citrifolia), bunut (Ficus glabela), silik (Annona squamosa), mete (Anacardium ocidentale), pepaya (Carica papaya), singepur (Muntingia calabura), ancak (Ficus rumphii), intaran (Azadirahcta indica), beringin (Ficus benyamina), jambu air (Psidium aquatica), kecubung (Datura metel), kerasi (Lantana camara), ceremai (Phylanthus nidus), kem (Flacourtia indica), dan beberapa jenis rumput (seperti Temeda arguens, Hoplismenus sp., Axonopus sp, Cyperus sp., Panicum eruciforme, Eragrostis sp, Kylinga monocepala, Eleusine indica, Pannisetum sp., Chloris barbata).

Di samping sebagai sumber pakan langsung berupa buah dan biji, keberadaan jenis tumbuhan juga menyediakan serangga (seperti belalang, semut, ulat, kupu-kupu), reptil kecil, yang menjadi sumber pakan bagi jalak bali (Tabel 1). Saat pengamatan ditemukan 6 ekor burung Jalak Bali sedang melakukan aktivitas makan, 2 ekor jalak ditemukan sedang makan di lahan rumput dekat ternak di sekitar kandang pemeliharaan FNPF desa Ped sedang makan serangga dan bulir-bulir rumput, 2 ekor lainnya hinggap di pohon jambu dan pepaya sedang mematok-matok buah jambu dan papaya.

Menurut Frans Manansang dkk (2007) Dari Taman Safari Indonesia (TSI) dan Fukuko Takahashi (2007) dari Gunma Safari Park (GSP) Jepang; dalam http://www.balipost.co.id/balipostcetak/2007/1/19/ b13.htm) menyatakan bahwa Buah pohon intaran merupakan salah satu makanan favorit jalak Bali. Di alam sumber pakan jalak bali cukup bervariasi, seperti buah/biji, serangga (seperti ulat, semut, capung, belalang, lalat, rayap), cacing dan reptil kecil. (Arlene,dalam http://www.thewildones.org/Animals/ balistar.html). Di habitat aslinya (Taman Nasional Bali Barat), beberapa jenis buah yang merupakan pakan jalak bali seperti buah kerasi, beringin, pepaya, sawo kecik, bidara, dan lain-lainnya. (Pujiati, 1987; dalam Sukarmini, 1999). Di Desa Ped jenis-jenis tumbuhan ini sudah tumbuh dan berpotensi untuk dikembangkan dalam rangka menyediakan sumber pakan bagi konservasi secara ex-situ jalak bali.

Tabel 1. Jenis-Jenis Tumbuhan dan Potensinya sebagai Sumberdaya bagi Jalak Bali di Kawasan Ped Nusa Penida

4. Simpulan dan Saran

Simpulan: di Desa Ped teridentifikasi 105 jenis tumbuhan dari strata pohon, semak dan herba. Di antara 105 jenis tersebut, terdapat sekitar 30 jenis tumbuhan yang merupakan sumber pakan bagi jalak Bali, baik berupa buah atau biji. Jenis pohon tersebut di antaranya : juwet (Zysigium cumini), intaran (Azadirachta indica), beringin (Ficus benyamina), jenis semak/perdu, seperti kerasi (Lantana camara), kem (Flacourtia indica), dan jenis herba/rumput seperti Temeda arguens, Panicum eruciforme, Eragrostis sp, Kylinga monocepala, Eleusine indica, Chloris barbata).

Di samping sebagai sumber pakan langsung berupa buah dan biji, keberadaan jenis tumbuhan juga menyediakan serangga (seperti belalang, semut, ulat, kupu-kupu), reptil kecil, yang menjadi sumber pakan bagi jalak Bali.

Ketersediaan tumbuhan yang menjadi sumber pakan di kawasan Desa Ped ini mendukung upaya konservasi ex-situ jalak Bali.

Saran: dalam rangka mendukung upaya pelestarian jalak Bali di Nusa Penida, maka semua pihak perlu melakukan upaya pelestarian jenis-jenis tumbuhan yang merupakan sumber pakan bagi jalak bali.

Ucapan Terimakasih

Pada kesempatan ini penulis mengucapkan terimakasih kepada yayasan Begawan Giri atas bantuan dana penelitiannya dan terimakasih juga kepada staf FNPF atas segala bantuannya dalam pelaksanaan penelitian di lapangan.

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