Bali Myna (Sudaryanto, 2009)

The article below on the Bali Myna is a publication by biologist Sudaryanto, Department of Biology FMIPA at Universitas Udayana, published in 'Prosiding Seminar Nasional MIPAnet 2009, Bali 13-­14 Agustus 2009'. It discusses the distibution, behaviour, nesting and habitat of this bird in both West Bali National Park (TNBB) and Nusa Penida. To enhance comprehension, many of below data have been converted into tables by Godi Dijkman. The (adaptation of) the abstract and the translation of the original Indonesian text - which follows below - was done by Godi Dijkman.

sudaryanto 2009 image 1 map distributionImage 1 (right). Bali starling distribution in Bali and Nusa Penida

Abstract

Since 1966, the Bali Myna (Leucopsar rothschildi Stresemann, 1912) has been categorised as Critically Endangered (CR) by IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) and protected by both Indonesian and international law. This research aims at gaining new insights into Bali Myna Behaviour in Nusa Penida (Bali), and at contributing to Bali Myna conservation. Research was conducted from August 2006 to June 2009, and made use of 'Focal Animal Sampling Method' (Altman, 1974) regarding Bali Myna activities and its interaction with its habitat. To identify flora used to find nesting possibilities and habitats, 'Flora' (Steenis, 1988: Sutisna et al. 1998) was used.

Research results in Nusa Penida show that the habitat of the Bali Myna comprises the villages of Ped and Batumadeg. Ten species of trees were encoutered, which were used as nesting site, 11 nest locations and 26 tree species constituting the Bali Myna's habitat. Bali Myna's behaviour was observed as: roosting (45%), feeding (40%) and preening (15%).

Introduction

In Bali, there are 174 bird species, amongst which 26 are protected. One of the protected species, which falls into the category of 'Critically Endangered' is a bird endemic to Bali which can only be found in the West Bali National Park (TNBB), i.e. the Bali Myna (Leucopsar rothschildi Stresemann, 1912) (Anonymous, 1999; Shannaz et al., 1995). The Bali Myna is included in Appendix I in CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora), (Cites, 2009).

The West Bali National Park comprises 7.567,85 ha (Darmadja, 2007), but the distribution of the Bali Myna only covers an area between Teluk Brumbun and Teluk Kelor, and ±287 ha in between Lembah Kelor and Asam Kembar. (Sudaryanto, 2001). In the 1960s, however, the distribution of the Bali Myna included Selemadeg and Antosari Tabanan regency. In the 1980's its distribution comprised subdistrict Melaya, Jembrana regency, and nests were found in tree holes, whereas it disappeared from Melaya in 1989. In the 1990's, the bird was still seen flying across the subdistrict of Pupuan, Tabanan regency. Ever since the 1950's, the Bali Myna was no longer seen in the subdistrict of Seririt, Buleleng regency, and in Yeh Embang, Jembrana regency (Sudaryanto, 2007).

In Nusa Penida, Klungkung regency (image 1), the first two Bali Mynas were released on 13 June 2006 (table 1). Until December 2006, its number increased with five birds (Anonymous, 2006), and the number of offspring further increased to 17 birds in September 2007 (Wirayudha, 2007).

Table 1. Bali starling release in Nusa Penida

No. Date Place Releasing party Number of birds Remarks
13 June 2006 Ped Nusa Penida Bird Sanctuary  2 -
2 10 July 2006 Ped Bali Governor 10 -
  10 July 2006 Batumadeg Bali Governor 15 two dead birds
3 12 December 2006 Batumadeg Nusa Penida Bird Sanctuary 12 -
4 27 April 2007 Kutampi harbour President of the Republic of Indonesia 12 two dead birds
5 25 July 2007 Ped Forestry Department (Indonesian Government) 2 -
      Total number 53 4

sudaryanto 2009 image 2 map distribution

Image 2 (right): Bali starling distribution in Nusa Penida

49 Bali Mynas were released in Nusa Penida (table 1); and 73-84 were released between 17-10 June 2009 (Sudaryanto, 2009), whereas in 2001 the number of Bali Mynas living in West Bali National Park was 6 (Sudaryanto, 2001), and 14 in 2008 (Radar Bali, 2008).

The entire population of Nusa Penida is willing to protect the Bali Myna, whereas only 51,25% is aware of the benefits of its protection (Sudaryanto, 2009). In Nusa Penida, also comprising Nusa Penida, Lembongan and Ceningan, awig-awig regulations are adhered to in 35 traditional 'adat' villages, which are valid for all inhabitants of these isles, and its visitors. For this purpose, in each 'desa adat' special notice boards have been placed. These boards tell the people, that whomever catches, sells, shoots any kind of birds, especially the Bali Myna, faces a fine of RP 5,000,000. In addition to this fine, the inhabitants also have to pay double the costs of a bird. The social fine, which consists of expelling from the family or social environment, is also valid for those who repeatedly transgress the awig-awig regulations (Sudaryanto, 2008). This serves as an answer to doubts put forward by Indrawan et al. in 2007 on the safety conditions of the Bali Myna release in Nusa Penida.

The objective of this research is to get a better view of the behaviour of the Bali Myna (Leucopsar rothschildi Stresemann, 1912) in Nusa Penida.

Methodology

Research was carried out between August 2006 and June 2009. In order to get a better idea of the behaviour of the Bali Myna and its interaction with its habitat, the 'Ad Libitum Sampling' method was used (Altman, 1974), whereas for identification of nesting sites (growth?), 'Flora' (Steenis, 1988) was used, as well as 'Pedoman Pengenalan Pohon Hutan Di Indonesia' (Sutisna et al. 1998).

Results and discussion

The Bali Myna in Nusa Penida was mainly observed in the village of Ped (8º 40' Latitude South; 115 º 32' Longitude) and Batumadeg (8º 45' Latitude South; 115º30' Longitude).

sudaryanto 2009 table 2 behaviourImage 2 (left). Daily behaviour of the Bali myna

Bali Myna's daily behaviour in Nusa Penida consists of: perching on a branch (45%) and moving about (55%). Whilst perching on a branch, the bird was seen to be chirping/singing (45%), eating (40%), preening (10%) and lifting its crest (5%). In West Bali National Park (TNBB), daily behaviour (Sudaryanto, 2003) was: perching on a branch (85%) and moving about (15%). Whilst perching on a branch, it was seen to be chirping/singing (60%), looking around (20%), preening (15%), feeding (3%) and lifting its crest (2%) (Image 2).

 

Feeding

table below: Bali Starling daily food in Nusa Penida (flora & fauna)

Latin Indonesian) English
Flora    
Azadirachta indica Intaran (Nusa Penida: Angih; Balinese: Mimba) Neem tree
Ficus glabella / virens aiton / lacor buah bunut White fig, Curtain Fig Tree (fruit)
Ficus rumphii (Blume) Moraceae buah ancak Fig sp. (fruit)
    Fig sp.? (fruit)
Fauna    
Acradium ornatum (Acridinae?) belalang pedang Silent slant-faced grasshopper
Creoboter spp. Belalang sembah Flower mantis
Geometridae ulat Geometer moth (caterpillar)
Hemidactylus frenatus cecak Common House Gecko
Oecophylla smaradigna kroto semut merah Weaver ant
Ordo Isoptera rayap Termite
Pheretima sp. acing tanah Earthworm

table below: Bali Starling daily food in West Bali National Park (TNBB) (Source: Cahyadin, 1993)

Fauna (Latin) Fauna (Indonesian) Fauna (English)
Ducetia thymifolia (Orthoptera?) belalang Grasshopper
Geometridae ulat Geometer moth (caterpillar)
Neridae (=Nereididae?) cacing laut (semut?) Polychaete worms? (ragworms, clam worms)
Pieridae ulat Small white butterfly (a.o.; caterpillar)

Habitat

table below: Bali Starling's habitat in Nusa Penida

Latin Indonesian English
Alstonia scholaris pule Blackboard tree, Indian Devil tree
Anacardium occidentale jambu monyet Cashew tree
Antidesma bunius buni Salamander-tree, Wild cherry, Currant tree
Arenga pinnata aren Feather palm
Artocarpus altilis kluwih Breadfruit
Artocarpus heterophylla nangka Jackfruit
Avicennia marina api-api Grey/White mangrove
Azadirachta indica Intaran (Nusa Penida: Angih; Balinese: Mimba) Neem tree fruit
Cocos nucifera pohon kelapa Coconut tree
Euphorbia tirucali kayu urip Aveloz, Firestick, Indian Tree Spurge etc.
Ficus glabella / virens aiton / lacor bunut White fig, Curtain Fig Tree
Ficus rumphii ancak Fig sp.
Ficus sp. pungak-pungak Ficus. sp.
Gliricidia sepium gamal Gliricidia
Hibiscus sinensi waru Chinese hibiscus
Lannea grandis (anacardiacaea) santan Cashew, Sumac family
Lantana camara krasi Lantana
Leucaena glauca lamtara White leadtree, Jumbay, White popinac
Mangifera indica mangga Mango tree
Manihot utillisima (esculenta) singkong Cassava
Muntingia calabura singapur Singapore cherry
Musa paradisiaca pisang Banana
Plumeria acuminata kambodja Frangipani
Psidium sp. kampuak Common guava
Sesbania grandifolia tuwi Agati, Hummingbird tree, Scarlet Wisteria
Syzgium cumini duwet Jambul, Jambolan, Jamblang etc.
Tamarindus indica asam Tamarind
Tectona grandis jati (mas) Teak

table below: Bali Starling's habitat in West Bali National Park (Sudaryanto, 2003)

Latin Indonesian English
Acacia / Vachellia leucophloea (48,1%) pohon pilang White-bark Acacia
Albizia lebbeckioides tekik Albizia sp.
Azadirachta indica intaran Neem, Nim, Indian lilac
Grewia sp. talok Grewia sp.
Phyllanthus emblica kemloko Indian gooseberry
Schleira oleosa kesambi Schleira oleosa
Schoutenia ovata (17%) walikukun Schoutenia ovata

sudaryanto 2009 image 3 bali starling arensudaryanto 2009 image 4 bali starling pungak

Image 3 (above, left): Bali starling habitat, Sugar palm (Arenga pinnata; Ind. Enau/Aren); Image 4: Bali starling nest in a ficus (Ficus sp.; Ind. Pohon Pungak-pungak)

Nesting

In the villages of Ped and Batumadeg (Nusa Penida), Bali Myna breeds in eleven tree species.

Latin Indonesian English
Arenga pinnata aren Feather palm
Artocarpus altilis kluwih Breadfruit
Avicennia marina api-api Grey/White mangrove
Azadirachta indica Intaran (Nusa Penida: Angih; Balinese: Mimba) Neem tree
Cocos nucifera pohon kelapa Coconut tree
Ficus glabella / virens aiton / lacor bunut White fig, Curtain Fig Tree
Ficus sp. pungak-pungak Ficus sp.
Ficus rumphii ancak Ficus sp.
Leucaena leucocephala lamtara, Lamtoro, Petai cina Petai tree
Psidium sp. kampuak Common guava
Tamarindus indica asam Tamarind

In West Bali National Park (TNBB), Bali Myna finds nesting opportunities in six tree species. 

Latin Indonesian English Source
Acacia/ Vachellia leucophloea pohon pilang White-bark Acacia Sudaryanto, 2003
Grewia koordensis? talok Grewia sp. Noerdjito, 2005
Phyllanthus emblica kemloko Indian gooseberry Noerdjito, 2005
Schoutenia ovata walikukun Schoutenia ovata Noerdjito, 2005
Terminalia edulis pohon klumprit Terminalia sp. Cahyadin, 1993
Terminalia microcarpa kaliombo Terminalia sp. Noerdjito, 2005

Conclusion

This research show that the distribution of the Bali Myna in Nusa Penida comprises the village of Ped (S: 8º 40.6'; E: 115 º 30.80') and Batumadeg (Latitude South: 8º 45'; Longitude East: 115º 30'). The Bali Myna finds nesting locations in eleven places, of which ten tree species, and it visits 26 trees in its habitat. Behaviour: The Bali Myna in Nusa Penida is found perching on tree branches (45%), feeding (40%) and preening (15%).

References (Sudaryanto)

  • Altman, J. 1974. Observational Study of Behavior: Sampling Methods Behavior 49: 227-267.
  • Anonim. 1999. Peraturan Pemerintah Republik Indonesia Nomor 7 Tahun 1999. Tentang Pengawetan Jenis Tumbuhan Dan Satwa. Presiden Republik Indonesia. Available at: www.dephut.go.id/INFORMASI/pp/7_99.htm. Opened: 01062009
  • Anonim. 2006. Jalak Bali Diliarkan Di Nusa Penida. Available at: http://www.gatra.com/2007-01-08/artikel.php?id=100269. Opened: 28.01.2007
  • Cahyadin, Y. 1993. Study Beberapa Aspek Ekologi Burung Jalak Bali (Leucopsar rothschildi Stresemann, 1912) Pada Musim Berkembang Biak Di Teluk Kelor Taman Nasional Bali Barat. Jurusan Biologi FMIPA Universitas Padjadjaran. Bandung. Skripsi.
  • CITES. 2009. The CITES Appendices. Appendices I, II and III. Available at: http://www.cites.org/eng/app/appendices.shtml Opened: 06062009
  • Darmadja, P.B. 2007. Buku Informasi Taman Nasional Bali Barat. TNBB. Cekik-Gilimanuk.
  • Indrawan, M., R.B. Primack, J. Supriatna. 2007. Biologi Konservasi. Yayasan Obor. Jakarta.
  • Noerdjito, M. 2005. Pola Persarangan Jalak Bali (Leucopsar rothschildi Stresemann, 1912) Dan Kerabatnya Di Taman Nasional. Bali Barat. Berita Biologi. Vol. 7. Nomor 4. April 2005.
  • Radar Bali. 2008. Kiat TNBB Selamatkan Populasi Jalak Bali Di Tengah Ancaman Kepunahan. Tambah Pos Pengamanan, Pencuri Langsung Dihukum. Radar Bali 10 Agustus 2008. Denpasar.
  • Shannaz,J., P.Jepson, Rudyanto. 1995. Burung-Burung Terancam Punah Di Indonesia. PHPA/BirdLife International IP. Bogor.
  • Steenis, C.G.G.J. van 1998. Flora. PT. Pradnya Paramita. Jakarta.
  • Sudaryanto. 2001. Populasi, Sebaran dan Habitat Burung Jalak Bali serta Faktor-Faktor Yang Mempengaruhinya. Seminar Nasional Jalak Bali. Kantor Meneg LH. Denpasar 19-20 Juli 2001.
  • Sudaryanto, 2003. Konservasi Jalak Bali (Leucopsar rothschildi Stremann, 1912) Di Taman Nasional Bali Barat. Prosiding Seminar Nasional Keanekaragaman Hayati. PS. Biologi FMIPA ITS. Surabaya.
  • Sudaryanto, 2007. Tri Hita Karana Menyelamatkan Jalak Bali. Seminar Nasional Penyelamatan Jalak Bali Dan Habitatnya. Kuta-Bali. 15-16 Februari 2007
  • Sudaryanto, 2008. Pemanfaatan Kearifan Lokal Dalam Penyelamatan Jalak Bali (Leucopsar rothschildi Stresemann, 1912) Prosiding Seminar Nasional Strategi Konservasi In-SituTaman Nasional Bali Barat 12 Januari 2008. Taman Nasional Bali Barat. Cekik Bali.
  • Sudaryanto, 2009. Konservasi Jalak Bali (Leucopsar rothschildi Stresemann, 1912) Di Pulau Nusa Penida Bali. Seminar Nasional Biologi ke XV Malang 23-24 Juli 2009. Available at biologi.uin-malang.ac.id/download/DATA_PEMAKALAH_ORAL.doc; Opened: 30 Juni 2009
  • Sutisna, U., T. Kalima, Puradjaja. 1998. Pedoman Pengenalan Pohon Hutan Di Indonesia. N.Wulijarni-Soetjipto & Soekotjo (Penyunting). Yayasan Prosea dan Pusat Diklat Pegawai & SDM DepHut. Bogor.
  • Wirayudha, N. B. 2007. Pelepasliaran Dan Perlindungan Burung Di Nusa Penida. Nusa Penida Bird Sanctuary. Nusa Penida

Source

  • Sudaryanto - Perilaku Jalak Bali (Leucopsar rothschildi Stresemann, 1912) di Pulau Nusa Penida Propinsi Bali, Jurusan Biologi FMIPA Universitas Udayana; sudaryanto2000 [at] yahoo.com; published in 'Prosiding Seminar Nasional MIPAnet 2009, Bali 13-­‐14 Agustus', 2009

References

* Original Indonesian text *

Abstrakt

Jalak Bali (Leucopsar rothschildi Stresemann, 1912) sejak tahun 1966 oleh IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) dikelompokkan sebagai satwa terancam punah dengan kategori kritis (Critically Endangered; CR) dan telah dilindungi oleh berbagai perangkat hukum baik di Indonesia maupun secara internasional. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui Perilaku Jalak Bali di Pulau Nusa Penida Propinsi Bali, untuk memberikan manfaat bagi konservasi Jalak Bali. Penelitian ini dilakukan dari bulan Agustus 2006 sampai dengan Juni 2009. Untuk mengetahui perilaku Jalak Bali digunakan metode Focal Animal Sampling (Altman, 1974), untuk identifikasi tumbuhan yang dipergunakan bersarang dan habitat Jalak Bali menggunakan buku Flora (Steenis, 1988) dan buku Pedoman Pengenalan Pohon Hutan Di Indonesia (Sutisna dkk. 1998).

Dari penelitian ini diketahui habitat Jalak Bali di Pulau Nusa Penida adalah di Desa Ped (8º 40' LS; 115 º 32' BT) dan Desa Batu Madeg (8º 45' LS; 115º30' BT), habitatnya pada 26 spesies pohon dan membuat sarang di 11 lokasi, pohon yang digunakan untuk bersarang ada 10 spesies. Perilaku Jalak Bali adalah bertengger 45%, makan 40% dan perawatan tubuh 15%.
Kata kunci: Jalak Bali, Leucopsar rotschildi, Pulau Nusa Penida, Bali, perilaku.

Pendahuluan

Di Bali terdapat 174 spesies burung di antaranya terdapat 26 spesies burung yang dilindungi. Satu spesies burung yang dilindungi, termasuk kategori kritis (Critically Endangered), terancam punah dan merupakan spesies burung endemik Bali yang hanya terdapat di Taman Nasional Bali Barat (TNBB) yaitu Jalak Bali (Leucopsar rothschildi Stresemann, 1912) (Anonim, 1999; Shannaz dkk, 1995). Dalam CITES (Convention on Internasional Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora), Jalak Bali dimasukkan ke dalam Appendiks I (Cites, 2009).

Luas zona inti TNBB adalah 7.567,85 ha (Darmadja, 2007), tetapi sebaran Jalak Bali di TNBB tahun 2001-2002 hanya meliputi kawasan Teluk Brumbun – Teluk Kelor, dan di antara Lembah Kelor dengan Asam Kembar seluas ± 287 ha. (Sudaryanto, 2001). Padahal pada tahun 1960an sebaran Jalak Bali mencapai Selemadeg dan Antosari Kabupaten Tabanan, tahun 1980an sebaran Jalak Bali mencapai Kecamatan Melaya Kabupaten Jemberana bahkan terlihat ada yang membuat sarang di goak (lubang pada pohon), dan Jalak Bali mulai tidak terlihat di Melaya sejak tahun 1989. Pada tahun 1990an Jalak Bali masih terlihat terbang melintasi kawasan Kecamatan Pupuan Kabupaten Tabanan. Sejak tahun 1950an, Jalak Bali sudah tidak terlihat lagi di Kecamatan Seririt Kabupaten Buleleng dan di Yeh Embang Kabupaten Jemberana (Sudaryanto, 2007).

Di P. Nusa Penida Kabupaten Klungkung (Gambar. 1) telah dilepas liarkan Jalak Bali, yang pertama 13 Juni 2006 sebanyak 2 ekor (Tabel 1). Sampai bulan Desember 2006 ada penambahan jumlah Jalak Bali sebanyak 5 ekor anakan (Anonim, 2006), bahkan sampai September 2007 jumlah anakan telah menjadi 17 ekor (Wirayudha, 2007).

Jumlah Jalak Bali yang telah dilepaskan di P. Nusa Penida adalah 49 ekor (Tabel 1). Penghitungan total secara langsung Jalak Bali di P. Nusa Penida 17 – 20 Juni 2009 jumlahnya adalah 73 – 84 ekor (Sudaryanto, 2009). Sedangkan jumlah Jalak Bali di TN. Bali Barat pada tahun 2001 ada 6 ekor (Sudaryanto, 2001) dan pada tahun 2008 ada 14 ekor (Radar Bali, 2008).

Seluruh masyarakat P. Nuda Penida berniat melindungi Jalak Bali, padahal hanya 51,25% masyarakat yang merasa tahu manfaat melindungi Jalak Bali tersebut (Sudaryanto, 2009). Dan di Kepulauan Nusa Penida yang meliputi P. Nusa Penida, P. Nusa Lembongan dan P. Nusa Ceningan saat ini sudah dikukuhkan awig-awig di 35 desa adat dan mengikat bagi seluruh warga Kepulauan Nusa Penida dan pendatang, dan memasang papan pengumuman pada setiap desa adat. Masyarakat yang menangkap, menjual, menembak semua jenis burung khususnya Jalak Bali, akan dikenai sanksi. Selain harus membayar denda sebesar Rp. 5.000.000 (lima juta rupiah), pelanggar juga harus membayar uang dua kali lipat harga burung tersebut. Sanksi sosialnya yakni dikucilkan, juga akan diberlakukan bagi mereka yang berkali-kali melanggar awig-awig tersebut (Sudaryanto, 2008). Hal ini menjawab keraguan Indrawan dkk. (2007) tentang keamanan pelepasan Jalak Bali di P. Nusa Penida.

Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui perilaku Jalak Bali (Leucopsar rothschildi Stresemann, 1912) di Pulau Nusa Penida Propinsi Bali.

Metodologi

Selama penelitian ini dilakukan pada bulan Agustus 2006 sampai dengan Juni 2009. Untuk mengetahui perilaku serta interaksi Jalak Bali dengan habitatnya digunakan metode Ad Libitum Sampling (Altman, 1974), untuk identifikasi tumbuhan yang dipergunakan bersarang Jalak Bali menggunakan buku Flora (Steenis, 1988) dan buku Pedoman Pengenalan Pohon Hutan Di Indonesia (Sutisna dkk. 1998).

Hasil Dan Pembahasan

Selama pengamatan, Jalak Bali di P. Nusa Penida terutama tersebar di Desa Ped (8º 40' LS; 115 º 32' BT) dan Desa Batu Madeg (8º 45' LS; 115º30' BT).

Image 2: Bali starling distribution in Nusa Penida

Perilaku harian Jalak Bali di P. Nusa Penida adalah: bertengger 45% dan bergerak 55%. Sedangkan bertengger terdiri dari berkicau 45%, makan 40% dan perawatan tubuh 10% dan menegakkan jambul 5%. Sedangkan perilaku harian Jalak Bali Di TN. Bali Barat (Sudaryanto, 2003) adalah: bertengger 85% dan bergerak 15%. Sedangkan bertengger terdiri dari berkicau 60%, melihat-lihat sekitar 20%, perawatan tubuh 15%, makan 3% dan menegakkan jambul 2% (Gambar 2).

Makanan Jalak Bali di P. Nusa Penida adalah buah bunut (Ficus glabela), buah angih (Azadirachta indica), buah ancak (Ficus rumphii), belalang pedang (Acradium ornatum), Belalang sembah (Creoboter spp.), rayap (Ordo Isoptera), kroto semut merah (Oecophylla smaradigna), ulat (Familia Geometridae), cecak (Hemidactylus frenatus) dan cacing tanah (Pheretima sp.), sedangkan makanan Jalak Bali di TN. Bali Barat adalah ulat, semut dan rayap (Sudaryanto, 2003), ulat (Familia Geometridae dan Familia Pieridae), semut (Familia Neridae) dan belalang (Ducetia thymifolia) (Cahyadin, 1993).

Sedangkan habitat Jalak Bali di TN. Bali Barat adalah pada pohon pilang (Acacia leucophloea) 48.1%, walikukun (Schoutenia ovata) 17%, talok (Grewia sp.), tekik (Albizia lebbeckioides), kemloko (Phyllanthus emblica), kesambi (Schleira oleosa), intaran (Azadirachta indica) (Sudaryanto, 2003).

Image 3: Bali starling habitat, Sugar palm (Arenga pinnata; Ind. Enau/Aren)

Di Desa Ped dan Desa Batu Madeg P. Nusa Penida Jalak Bali membuat sarang pada 11 spesies pohon, yaitu pohon kelapa, bunut, pungak-pungak (Gambar 4), angih (Azadirachta indica), ancak, asam, api-api, kluwih, kampuak, lamtara dan aren (Gambar 3). Sedangkan di TN. Bali Barat Jalak Bali membuat sarang pada pohon klumprit (Terminalia edulis) (Cahyadin, 1993), pilang (Sudaryanto, 2003), walikukun (Schoutenia ovate), kaliombo (Terminalia microcarpa), kemloko (Phyllanthus emblica) dan talok (Grewia koordensis) (Noerdjito, 2005).

Kesimpulan

Dari penelitian ini diketahui sebaran Jalak Bali di Pulau Nusa Penida adalah di desa Ped (S: 8º 40.6'; E: 115 º 30.80') dan Di Desa Batu Madeg (LS: 8º 45'; BT: 115º30'). Jalak Bali membuat sarang di 11 lokasi, pohon yang digunakan untuk bersarang ada 10 spesies, pohon habitat Jalak Bali ada 26 spesies. Perilaku Jalak Bali di P. Nusa Penida adalah bertengger 45%, makan 40% dan perawatan tubuh 15%.

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