Pura Goa Betel, Ceningan

Photographic impression of Pura Goa Betel, Ceningan. Given Karl Helbig's observations that the smallest of the Nusa Penida islands Ceningan was still uninhabited by 1940, it seems strange that below article should appear in the category 'Archaeology'. However, perhaps this positioning is understandable as the (most important) temples of Nusa Penida, including those on Lembongan and Ceningan, have been included in this section.

Pura Batu Medau (Winarsa, 1978)

Pura Batumedau in Nusa Penida

In June 1978, I Dewa Made Winarsa, Institut Hindu Dharma Denpasar, wrote a dissertation for the Committee 'Ujian Sarjana Muda Lengkap Negara' Denpasar in order to fulfil the requirements for 'Sarjana Muda' (Bachelor degree) in Cultural and Religious Affairs of the Institut Hindu Dharma in Denpasar. The examination committee 'Sarjana Muda Lengkap Negara, Institut Hindu Dharma Denpasar' consisted of chairman Drs. I Gusti Ngurah Rai Wiraha & secretary Drs. I Gusti Gede Ardana. 

Pura Penataran Ped (Putra/Kaler, 1985?)

Penataran Temple at Ped - A historical document on the history of Nusa Penida's most revered temple

History versus mythology

In approximately 1985 (possibly 29 May 1975), Drs. I Gusti Agung Putra & I Gusti Ketut Kaler were commissioned by the Hindu University Denpasar to do research into the history of this temple. For a description of this temple by Fred B. Eiseman Jr, please click here.

Batukandik Temple Shrine (Bagus, 1997)

The article below by archaeologist A.A. Gde Bagus (1997) gives a description of one of the most striking features of all the temples on the island of Nusa Penida: the "Manusia kangkang", a human figure carved on the front of a Padma(sana) or Surya Shrine, in Pura Meranting Batukandik. It dates back to the late megalithic era and appears to represent a woman standing with her legs wide apart. According to Bagus, this relief served to pay reverence to the forces of nature (Dewa Surya), and as a means to ward off danger and as a symbol of rebirth.

Pura Meranting Batukandik (Nieuwenkamp/Dijkman, 1937/2009)

Below article consists of illustrations of Pura Meranting Batukandik by W.O.J. Nieuwenkamp, February 1937 and personal observations by author Godi Dijkman during several visits to 'Pura Puseh Lan Desa, Desa Pakraman Batukandik', formerly know as Pura Meranting Batukandik (2007/2009). Nieuwenkamp's original Dutch text follows below.

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