Stone tools (Patridina, 2013)

In 2013, Esa Putra Bayu Gusti Gineung Patridina wrote an S1 thesis entitled 'Alat batu dari Situs Gua Gede, Kajian Tipologi dan Fungsi', loosely translated as 'Stone tools from Gua Gede Cave, Nusa Penida - A Study on its Typology and Function'. The author wishes to prove the functionality of stone tools in accordance with the makers' abilities and needs, namely: different societies created different tools, and stone tools can be used as a clue to discover their cognitive maturity levels of any particular society.

South Bali Sculptures in Nusa Penida (Geria, 1997)

I Made Geria, working for the Archaeological Department Denpasar (BAD) writes an article on South Balinese sculpture in Nusa Penida, a Study on Statues from the Classic Period entitled 'Unsur Budaya Bali Selatan di Nusa Penida, Kajian Senia Arca Masa Klasik', published in BAD's magazine Forum Arkeologi, March 1997.

Nusa Penida Survey (Geria, 1997)

In 1996, I Made Geria from the Archaeological Department in Denpasar (BAD) conducted field studies to a number of temples in Nusa Penida. The team found more than 35 statues and architecturally interesting structures, amongst which the 'padma' at Pura Puncak Mundhi, the temple at the highest elevation in Nusa Penida (535m), facing Mount Semeru in East Java. 'Padma' in Balinese means lotus, and 'padmasana' is defined as the throne of a god in the inmost court of a temple. After extensive research, BAD concluded that the statues found in temples around Nusa Penida had been brought in from mainland Bali, and that architectural structures such as the 'padma' at Mundhi, but also the 'Manusia Kangkang' shrine at Pura Meranting (Batukandik) were influenced by Hindu religion from outside Bali.

Pura Saab Statues (Sugitawan, 2003)

Resud Sugitawan describes the four human-divine statues and a number of other ones, found at Saab Temple, Nusa Penida, in a thesis of some 100 pages. He estimates these statues date back to the Middle (Classic) Era, 13th-14th Century, and argues that the reasons for this are not only their characteristics, but also the material they are made from: batu padas. The origins of the statues, given the present subdivision of Pura Saab, is not clear. Summarised translation by Godi Dijkman, including additional comments in square brackets.

Batukandik Temple Shrine (Suastika, 2001)

I Made Suastika tries to answer the question whether the 'Sanggar Tawang' is a 'padmasana' (the throne of a god in the inner court of a temple) or indeed a structure in the advanced stages of the megalithic tradition. English (summarised) translation by Godi Dijkman; additional comments by the author in square brackets. Original Indonesian text follows below.

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