Successful tourism in Nusa Lembongan, Indonesia?
Case study by Veronica Long and Geoffrey Wall, Department of Geography, University of Waterloo, Ontario, N2L3GL, Canada (1996) Below paper, of which the most important parts are quoted, discusses the mutual benefits of tourism for the village of Jungutbatu on Lembongan for the tourism operators, the tourists and the local residents of the island, after tourism in the 1970s became a major source of income, more or less at the time of the introduction of seaweed cultivation in 1984. Author GD hopes he will be granted permission to publish the entire article soon.
After a presentation of the research method, the following issues are touched upon:
|Tourism in Desa Jungut Batu Bali Hai Cruises The village tour
It is argued that the pessimistic perspective of impact studies is being complemented by a search for success stories. This paper describes tourism on an island off the coast of Bali, Indonesia, in which there appears to be considerable compatibility between the interests of local residents and a cruise boat operation. However, there is reluctance to label to situation a success. Rather, attention is drawn to the need to examine trade-offs and to manage change.
The purpose of this paper is to document a case from Bali in which the characteristics of residents and visitors are extremely divergent but where the interests of both tourism operators and destination residents appear to merge, where interesting experiences for visitors and long-term benefits for hosts and guests appear to be attainable and where tourism may indeed be sustainable.
Is the tourism program which has been described a success? Perhaps it is too soon to say, for Bali Hai Cruises have yet to be in operation for an extended period of time. In the short term, the tourists appear to he having a good time, the cruise company is financially solvent, some people in Desa Jungut Batu are gaining an income, and there appear to be few negative consequences of Bali Hai's activities. Clearly, the cruise company is out to make a profit but it is trying hard and with some success to do this in a socially and environmentally acceptable manner. In the longer term, there is considerable congruence between the interests of the company and the villagers: both are likely to gain from the maintenance of the reef and cultural dislocations would benefit neither residents nor the company for one of the interests of the passengers, and hence of the company, is that the village that they visit is ‘traditional’. At the same time, initiatives taken by the company to involve villagers in activities which would appear to he of mutual interest, such as tree planting, improved waste management, training in craft production and the use of reef moorings as opposed to anchors have met with mixed success.
At present there is little overnight tourism in Nusa Lembongan and the limited accommodation is on the periphery of the village. Furthermore, the day visitors arrive in the heat of the day when residents tend to be resting. Thus, because of spatial and temporal use patterns, there is limited interaction between residents and visitors of different types. Even so, although at present minor in nature, there are small signs of commoditization of culture and some resentment at the uneven distribution of benefits. Nusa Lembongan was recently designated for tourism development in the spatial arrangement plan for Bali. Thus, further development may be expected eventually which may be outside the control of the cruise ship company or the villagers.
Also, Bali Hai cruises has taken steps to stimulate tourism development in the form of a day-use beach facility in the neighbouring village of Desa Lembongan resulting in the employment of a further 20 islanders. At the same time, they are producing clean drinking water from a desalinator, some of which is made available to local residents. They also monitor use and any damages to the reef on a daily basis and have strong interest in having the reef designated as a protected area. Thus, further changes may be expected as tourism continues to evolve in Nusa Lembongan.
- Publication: Tourism Management. Vol. 17. No.1. pp.43-50, 1996. Copyright © 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd. Printed in Great Britain. All rights reserved. 0261-5177/96 $15.00 + 0.00; downloaded from UvA (University of Amsterdam), February 2013