Below bibliography presents works of interest with direct and indirect reference to Nusa Penida in alfabetical order (author). 'pdf' in brackets indicates that this title is available in full (researchable) pdf file.

Nusa Penida: historical research

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Named after Lionel Walter Rothschild (1868-1937), the Bali Starling (Leucopsar rothschildi) - Bali's fabled mascot, almost at the brink of extinction - found a new home on Nusa Penida in 2006. The discovery of this cheerful and sympathetic bird's new habitat was the start of research into Nusa Penida in 2007, resulting in this website: historical research on the island group of Nusa Penida (Nusa Gede, Nusa Ceningan & Nusa Lembongan), sibling to mainland Bali, Indonesia.

This is an open source website with information on a range of subjects with the ultimate goal of bringing the island to the attention of the wider public and promoting cultural interest in its history and a better understanding of its natural resources. The author hopes that this website, dedicated to Balinese historian Njoman Djelada (Gora Sirikan), proves useful for those wishing to explore the history of this island group.

This website is best viewed on a desktop computer. I welcome comments and suggestions, please refer to Facebook page or send an e-mail message (see icons below).


Below list is a way of expressing the author's gratitude to the writers, scholars, researchers, men of letters, nature conservationists, informants, language specialists, archaeologists, web designers, historians, journalists and all those who have shared their knowledge on Nusa Penida (in alphabetical order).

Nusa Penida, why?

The two things that triggered the author's interest in the island group of Nusa Penida, Lembongan & Ceningan are the fabled mascot of the Balinese fauna, the Bali Starling, and the island's special relationship with its past and mythological origins. But what exactly is the island's history?

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